خورشید ندیم . دنیا داٹ کام
- Terrorism? دہشت گردی کیا
- Takfir; Doctrine of Terror
- Takfir: Refutation from Quran
- Jihad: Myth & Reality
- Edict الفتوى
- Rebellion for Shari'ah
- Why Pakistan created?
- The Islamic State : الدولة الإسلامية
- Caliphate: Redundant or Relevant
- Eduction & Learning
- Muslims & Non Muslims
- Anti Islam
اِس وقت جو صورت حال بعض انتہا پسند تنظیموں نے اپنے اقدامات سے اسلام اور مسلمانوں کے لیے پوری دنیا میں پیدا کر دی ہے، یہ اُسی فکر کا...
Wednesday, April 12, 2017
وہ بیانیہ جس نے مسلم نوجوانوں اور معاشروںکو انتہا پسندی کے راستے پر ڈالا، چند نکات پر مشتمل ہے:
1 ۔ خلافت، ایک دینی اصطلاح ہے اور قیامِ خلافت ایک دینی ذمہ داری۔ اس کا مفہوم یہ ہے کہ ساری دنیا کے مسلمان ایک سیاسی وحدت ہیں اور یہ ان کا دینی فریضہ ہے کہ وہ مل کر ایک نظم اجتماعی تشکیل دیں۔ ان کا ایک خلیفہ ہو اور وہ اس کی اتباع کریں۔ اس تصور کے حق میں جو لٹریچر وجود میں آیا اس میں 'خلافت‘ اور 'اسلامی ریاست‘ مترادف الفاظ ہیں۔ علم کی دنیا میں علامہ رشید رضا تک خلافت کی اصطلاح مستعمل رہی۔ اس کے بعد 'اسلامی ریاست‘ نے 'خلافت‘ کی جگہ لے لی۔ دور جدید میں ایک بار پھر 'خلافت‘ کو اپنا لیا گیا۔
2 ۔ مسلمانوں کی سیاسی وحدت کی اساس صرف مذہب ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ وحدت کی ہر بنیاد، وہ رنگ ہو یا نسل، جغرافیہ ہو یا زبان، باطل اور غیر اسلامی ہیں۔ لہٰذا مسلمانوں میں کوئی سیاسی نظم اگر قائم ہو گا تو صرف مذہب کی بنیاد پر۔
3 ۔ قومی ریاست عہدِ حاضر کا ایک تصور ہے جو غیر اسلامی ہے۔ یہ جغرافیہ یا نسل کو اجتماعیت کی اساس کے طور پر قبول کرتا ہے۔ دور جدید میں استعماری قوتوں نے قومی ریاست کے غیر اسلامی تصور کی آبیاری کی اور مسلمانوں کو رنگ و نسل کی بنیاد پر تقسیم کر دیا۔ بطور مسلمان ہم اس کو ماننے کے پابند نہیں۔ اس لیے مسلمانوں کو مل کر اس کے خلاف متحرک ہونا چاہیے اور ایک عالمگیر خلافت قائم کرنی چاہیے۔
4 ۔ جمہوریت ایک کفریہ نظام ہے۔ اس میں انسانوں کو صرف گنا جاتا ہے، تولا نہیں جاتا۔ اس نظام میں عامی اور عالم دونوں کی رائے ایک جیسا وزن رکھتی ہے۔ یہ غیر اسلامی تصور ہے۔ اسلام میں جاننے والے اور نہ جاننے والے برابر نہیں ہو سکتے۔ یہ خدا کی حاکمیت کے مقابلے میں جمہور کی حاکمیت کا تصور ہے۔
5۔ اﷲ تعالیٰ اس کائنات کا حقیقی فرماں روا ہے۔ اس کا بدیہی نتیجہ یہ ہے کہ انسانی سماج اور ریاست پر بھی اس کی فرماں روائی قائم ہو جائے۔ لہٰذا اقتدار اصلاً مسلمانوںکا حق ہے جو اﷲ تعالیٰ کی حاکمیت کو قائم کرتے ہیں۔ اسلام نے اگر مذہبی آزادی کو روا رکھا ہے تو صرف انفرادی سطح پر۔ غیر مسلموں کو زمین پر حق اقتدار نہیں دیا جا سکتا۔ اگر کہیں انہیں اقتدار حاصل ہے تو ہم بزور ان کا یہ اقتدار ختم کریں گے۔ جب تک ہمارے پاس طاقت نہیں، ہم بادل نخواستہ ان کے اس اقتدار کو گوارا کریں گے۔
6 ۔ موجودہ مسلمان حکمران نفاذِ اسلام کی راہ میں رکاوٹ اور مسلم دشمن طاقتوں کے ایجنٹ کا کردار ادا کر رہے ہیں۔ دینی لحاظ سے ان حکمرانوں کی کچھ ذمہ داریاں ہیں۔ ان میں سے بعض وہ ہیں جن کا تعلق اجتماعیت سے ہے جیسے جہاد یا حدود کا نفاذ۔ کچھ وہ ہیں جو شہریوں پر انفرادی سطح پر نفاذِ اسلام سے متعلق ہیں جیسے حجاب اور داڑھی کی پابندی۔ مسلمان حکمران ان دینی ذمہ داریوں سے روگردانی کر رہے ہیں۔ قرآن مجید (المائدہ 5:44) کی رو سے یہ بالفعل کافر، لہٰذا مرتد ہو چکے ہیں۔ چونکہ اسلام میں ارتداد کی سزا موت ہے، اس لیے ان کا خون مباح ہے۔ یعنی یہ واجب القتل ہیں۔ جو لوگ ریاست و حکومت کے اہل کار ہوتے ہوئے، ان کے معاون اور دست و بازو ہیں، ان کا شمار بھی انہی کے طبقے میں ہو گا، لہٰذا ان پر بھی ارتداد کی سزا نافذ ہو گی۔
7۔ ارتداد کا ارتکاب صرف حکمران ہی نہیں، عام لوگ بھی کرتے ہیں۔ جیسے کسی مسلمان کی طرف سے دینی شعائر یا انبیا کی توہین جیسے افعال ہیں۔ حکومت کی ذمہ داری ہے کہ وہ ایسے مجرموں پر ارتداد کی سزا نافذ کرے۔ اگر حکومت اسلامی نہیں ہے یا اس ذمہ داری کو نبھانے میں تساہل کا مظاہرہ کرتی ہے تو یہ غیرتِ ایمانی کا تقاضا ہے کہ لوگ خود ایسے مجرموں کو سزا دیں۔
8۔ اسلامی ریاست کے مسلم اور غیر مسلم شہری برابر نہیں ہیں۔ چونکہ اسلامی ریاست ایک نظریے کی بنیاد پر وجود میں آتی ہے، اس لیے جو لوگ اس نظریے پر ایمان نہیں رکھتے، ریاست کے ساتھ ان کی وفا وداری پوری طرح ثابت نہیں ہوتی۔ لہٰذا مسلم اور غیر مسلم کے شہری حقوق برابر نہیں ہو سکتے۔ اسی فرق کی وجہ سے ایک اسلامی ریاست میں غیر مسلموں کوکلیدی منصب نہیں دیے جا سکتے۔ ارتداد کی سزا کے حق میں ایک دلیل یہ بھی ہے کہ یہ ریاست کے نظریے سے بغاوت ہے اور بغاوت کی سزا ہر مذہب اور قانون میں موت ہے۔
9۔ جہاد کی علت کفر کا خاتمہ اور غلبہ اسلام ہے۔ اس کا مفہوم یہ ہے کہ جہاد کفر کے خاتمے اور اسلام کو دیگر ادیان پر غالب کرنے کے لیے کیا جاتا ہے۔ یہ فرضِ عین ہے۔ یعنی ہر مسلمان پر فرض ہے۔
10۔ جہاد کا اعلان حکمران کرتا ہے۔ اگر حکمران اس سے غافل ہوں تو جہاد کا حکم معطل نہیں ہوتا کیونکہ اسے قیامت تک باقی رہنا ہے۔ یہ ذمہ داری پھر مسلمانوں کو اپنے طور پر ادا کرنا ہو گی۔ اس وقت جہاد کے لیے قائم تنظیمیں یہ فریضہ ادا کر رہی ہیں۔ لہٰذا ان کی نصرت دین کا تقاضا اور ان کی مخالفت دین کی مخالفت ہے۔
یہ ہے وہ بیانیہ جس نے مسلم دنیا میں انتہا پسندی اور نتیجتاً دہشت گردی کے بیج بوئے۔ ان تمام نکات کے حق میں دینی دلائل دیے جاتے ہیں۔ قرآن و حدیث اور فقہی روایت سے استدلال کیا جاتا ہے۔ علما کا اصل کام یہ ہے کہ وہ اس بیانیے کی حقیقت واضح کریں۔ وہ ان تمام نکات پر اپنی موقف سامنے لائیں۔ بنیادی سوال یہ ہے کہ ان کے نزدیک کیا یہ بیانیہ دینی اعتبار سے درست ہے؟ ان نکات کا دو اور دو چار کی طرح جواب چاہیے۔ مثال کے طور پر کیا اسلام مذہب کے علاوہ اجتماعیت کی کسی دوسری اساس کو قبول کرتا ہے؟ کیا قومی ریاست اسلام کی رو سے جائز ہے؟ ان سوالات کے یہ جواب نہیں ہیں کہ پاکستان اسلام کے نام پر بنا تھا اور اس کے آئین میں قرآن و سنت کے خلاف قانون سازی کی ممانعت ہے۔ علما کو یہ بتانا ہے کہ مذہب کے علاوہ اجتماعیت کی کوئی دوسری اساس، دینی نقطہ نظر سے جائز ہے یا ناجائز؟
اس کے بعد اگلا مر حلہ آئے گا۔ اگر یہ نکات درست ہیں تو پھر جوابی بیانیے کی کوئی ضرورت باقی نہیں۔ اس کے بعد دینی حوالے سے لازم ہو جاتا ہے کہ ان لوگوں کی نصرت کی جائے جو اسے درست سمجھتے ہیں۔
اگر غلط ہیں تو واضح کیا جائے کہ کیوں؟
علما کو یہ سمجھانا ہو گا کہ اس بیانیہ میں قرآن و حدیث سے استدلال میں کیا غلطی کی گئی ہے؟
آخری مرحلے میں انہیں ایجابی طور پر یہ بتانا ہو گا کہ جوابی بیانیہ کیا ہے؟
قرآن و سنت اس باب میں ہمیں کیا راہنمائی فراہم کرتے ہیں۔
اب مذمتی بیانات کو بیانیہ قرار دینے سے بات نہیں بنے گی۔ مسلمان معاشروں کو اب اس ابہام سے نکلنا ہے اور ریاستوں کو بھی۔ جہاں تک پاکستان کا معاملہ ہے، ریاستی اور معاشرتی سطح پر معاملہ بدستور غیر واضح ہے۔ اس کی وجہ یہی ہے کہ اسے اصل جگہ سے مخاطب نہیں بنایا گیا
خورشید ندیم . دنیا داٹ کام
خورشید ندیم . دنیا داٹ کام
Wednesday, March 8, 2017
Countering Narrative of Terrorists-2
The Dogs of Hell
“The rebels (khawarij) are the dogs of the Hell.” [Ibn Majah 173]; “There will be division and sectarianism in my nation and a people (the Kharijites) will come with beautiful words and evil deeds. They will recite the Quran but it will not pass beyond their throats. They will leave the religion as an arrow leaves its target and they will not return to it as the arrow does not return to its bow. They are the worst of the creation. Blessed are those who fight them and are killed by them. They call to the Book of Allah but they have nothing to do with it. Whoever fights them is better to Allah than them.” - Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) [ Abī Dāwūd, Sahih 4765]
Article for DJ for April 2017 ………….. sent on … 07 March 2017 23::50
Daesh (ISIS), East, Boko Haram in Nigeria and Taliban Pakistan are terrorists who mercilessly kill innocent people on the false pretext of Islam. They try to justify their immoral, illogical and un-Islamic rebellion against the state of Pakistan and other Muslim countries to establish global Khilafat. They try to take shelter behind another fake doctrine of Takfir (rejected by Muslims scholars through consensus) to justify killing of about 70,000 innocent Muslims including women, children, young & old non combatant civilians and soldiers. Recently some desperate terrorists have started using the name of Daesh (ISIS) since TTP has suffered heavily losses through operation Zarb-e-Azb launched by Pak Army. Recently launched operation “Rad-el-Fisad” has given new impetuous to the war against terrorists. It is in line with the commandment of Allah:
“Those that make war against God and His Messenger and spread disorder (Fisad) in the land shall be put to death or crucified or have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides, or be banished from the country. They shall be disgraced in this world, and then severely punished in the Hereafter"(Quran;5:33).
Allah desires unity among the believers:
“Hold fast to the cord of God (Quran) and let nothing divide you.”(Quran;3:103), “If Allah had so willed He would have made you a single people but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you:”(Qur’an;5:48). “Let there be no compulsion in religion”(Qur’an;2:256); “The believers are brothers to one another, therefore, make peace and reconciliation between your brothers and fear Allah, so that you may be shown mercy.”(Qur’an;49:10), “
The terrorists try to gains support from Muslims and recruit people among them using Islamic terminologies and concepts, twisted to serve their evil purpose. Their narrative is presented in such a way that it is accepted as Islamic by ordinary not well versed with the theological issues. Such propaganda tools needs to be countered through a superior counter narrative which is appealing and easily understood. In the previous issue, concept of Islamic Caliphate, used by terrorists to justify their evil war was discussed. It was concluded that the Islamic theology does not provide any basis for killing of innocent humans, a heinous crimes against humanity. The system of government in an ideal Islamic society it to be based on justice and consultation (shura), the democratic way spelled out by Qur’an fourteen centuries ago. Obedience to authority within bounds of law (Shari’a) is important for stability and to avoid anarchy. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was succeeded in rule by rightly guided successors among his blessed companions, who followed his footsteps (Sunnah) to the best of their abilities, in spreading knowledge, preaching Islam, and effectively managing the affairs of Islamic State with justice according to the law (Shari’a). The system of Caliphate of Rashdun (rightly guided caliphs) effectively continued for 30 years after Prophet (peace be upon him). Thereafter it became hereditary rule which passed on to Turks, abolished in 1924. The nostalgia of Caliphate lingers on the collective memory of Muslims as a symbol of unity in the glorious past. Militants exploit it, the establishment of caliphate has been a central pillar of their political program, which has proved to be a propaganda tool by ISIS’s role in Iraq and Syria. On the other hand the the governments in Muslim lands are either autocratic, some elected through so called popular vote, but the majority of rulers are not only far from Islam but many severely lack even in normal ethics and human values. Corruption, cheating, mismanagement, nepotism, selective application and disregard of law, deceit, murder, swindling state money and so on, the list is in too long, not to mention the moral aspects.
The religious extremists [sectarians and so called Jihadis] are also on killing spree, thorough suicide bombing and explosions at public places; their soft target is innocent unprotected masses. The elite enjoy foolproof security at state’s expense. Which is this Islam which sanctions killing of innocent Muslims and non Muslims? How the people who have no regards to the clear commandments of Qur’an will establish Khilafat? The Muslims and common citizens are like a sheep encircled by wolfs on one side and wild dogs on the other side.
The killing of innocent people or those opposed to the heretical religious doctrines through violence and terror is condemned and rejected worldwide, being terrorism. It has been experienced that mostly the struggles initiated for legitimate cause with international support ultimately turned in to terror campaign once abandoned by the international community and taken over by semi-literate bigots. Taliban in Afghanistan and tribal areas of Pakistan are a case in point [their 1st generation was nourished and trained by USA as Mujahideen against former USSR in 80’s]. They use religion [Islam in this case] as a cover to recruit and motivate the youngsters to become cannon fodder [suicide bombers & foot soldiers] to kill innocent people. The regional and international powers (India, Afghanistan) also get involved to use such terror groups through covert means to achieve their strategic goals. The hostile media is readily available to conveniently put the blame on the religion [Islam]. Hence Islam is maligned by the irrational religious bigots as well as the international powers. Whenever the international community did not abandon, the people involved in legitimate struggle, the armed struggles ended upon achieving peaceful resolution of conflict, Kosovo, Bosnia and East Timor are some recent examples. The lopsided policies and mismanagement by corrupt military or civil regimes in 3rd world countries [mostly Muslims] result in economic and social injustice. This ensures availability of large number of disgruntled, illiterate, unemployed youngsters from the under privileged strata of society. The extremists are quick to exploit through religious fervor to obtain required manpower, finances, public support and sympathy.
The political, military, economic strategic and other aspects of highly bloody War of Terror by Taliban are deliberated at various forums. However the heretic religious doctrine, ‘Takfeer’ the main motivating force of the extremist Taliban is given cursory treatment. An attempt is being made to critically analyze their ideology and see its relevance vis-à-vis, established Islamic concepts.
............................................................................................................Read updated latest :
- Countering Narrative of Terrorists-1: Caliphate of Terrorists تکفیری خوارج کی دیشت گرد شیطان خلافت
- Countering Narrative of Terrorists-2: Dogs of Hell خوارج جہنم کے کتے
- Why blame Muslims & Islam for Wars and Terrorism?
The suicide bombers and “do or die squads” are the main weapon of terrorists for mass killing. This phenomenon can be understood by analyzing cult formation. Here is an example: The tragedy of siege of ‘Red Mosque Brigade’ in 2007 at Islamabad resulting into death of many people, is commonly perceived to be linked with the militancy of religious fanatics, the aftermath of Afghan Jihad and oppression of Islamists under the pretext of the war against terror after 9/11 lead by US and allies. While on the face of it, this perception cannot be denied, there is a need to look at it deeper from another perspective through the hindsight. The inflexibility displayed by the Ghazi brothers, the clerics leading the ‘Red Mosque Brigade’ after brainwashing hundreds of students (both male and female) in their seminaries can also be linked with the ‘Cult’ phenomenon.
Let us see what the word ‘Cult’ stands for? According to Oxford dictionary ‘Cult’ means: “to inhabit, cultivate, and protect, honour with worship; Worship; reverential homage rendered to a divine being. A system of religious worship, especially as expressed in ceremonies, ritual, etc. Cult is the devotion or homage paid to a person or thing; especially a fashionable enthusiasm; a transient fad of an in-group.” The Cult leaders have different views form the majority and rigidly adhere to them. The scholars hold that one should be very careful to use world ‘Cult’ because while the word cult originally was intended to be neutral and innocent, since Jim Jones in 1978 provoked mass suicide among his followers, many have associated cults with killing. That assumption, state the scholars, is unfair to all those who belong to quite peaceful and harmless movements. Yet no one has settled on a satisfactory alternative term, though some speak of ‘New Religious Movements’. Why do these cults exist? Human action, especially responses to leaders who invoke the sacred, the divine, is always complex. Cult followers tend to be people who are unsatisfied by the complexities, contradictions, and ambiguities of life including life as interpreted by the mainstream religions. They seek answers, and the modern world, with its pluralism and its rapid communications, can confuse them and undercut their belief systems and their "orthodox" communities. The cult leader offers a single answer, keeps the rest of the world at bay, and reinforces only “ONE Belief System” advocated and preached by them. The history of all the religions is full of ‘cults’, the most recent being ‘Doomsday Cults’ in Christendom.
The cult leader or leaders may be suffering from the psychological disorder like Paranoia syndrome, or mania. These disorders are usually restricted to just two abnormalities of mood depression and elation, or mania. (Mood is a predominant emotion that colours the individual's entire psychic life.) Mania is characterized by an elated or euphoric mood, quickened thought and accelerated, loud or voluble speech, over-optimism and heightened enthusiasm and confidence, inflated self-esteem, heightened motor activity, irritability, excitement, and a decreased need for sleep. The manic individual may become injured, commit illegal acts, or suffer financial losses due to the poor judgment and risk-taking behaviour he displays when in the manic state. The Red Mosque clerics were repeatedly advised by all the religious scholars of repute that; while their demands for the implementation of Shari’a were genuine, the methodology adopted by them to achieve their objectives through militancy was wrong because it challenged the writ of state, which may result in to anarchy. But they declined to compromise. Same is applicable to Daesh (ISIS), Boko-Haram, TPP and other similar groups.
Similar cult can be discovered among Muslims, knwn as ‘Assassins’ (Hashshashin), the medieval Nizari Ismailis. Often described as a secret order led by a mysterious "Old Man of the Mountain", the Nizari Ismailis were an Islamic sect that formed in the late 11th century from a split within Ismailism – itself a branch of Shia Islam. The Nizaris posed a military threat to Seljuq authority within their territories by capturing and inhabiting many unconnected mountain fortresses throughout Persia, and later Syria, under the leadership of Hassan-i Sabbah. Sabbah is typically regarded as the founder of the Assassins, founding the so-called "Nizari Ismaili state" with Alamut Castle as its headquarters. Asymmetric warfare, psychological warfare, and surgical strikes were often an employed tactic of the Hashashin. Lacking their own army, the Nizari relied on these warriors to carry out espionage and assassinations of key opponent figures, and over the course of 300 years successfully killed two caliphs, and many viziers, sultans, and Crusader leaders.
In the early Muslim history some Cults may be linked with the term ‘Fitnah’ (‘trial,’ or ‘test’, which refer to heretical uprisings, especially the first major internal struggle within the Muslim community (656-661 C.E), which resulted in both civil war and religious schism. During the reign of the third caliph, 'Uthman, certain rebellious groups accused the Caliph of nepotism and misrule, and the resulting discontent led to his assassination. The rebels then recognized the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law, 'Ali, as ruler but later deserted him and fought against him, accusing him of having committed a grave sin in submitting his claim to the caliphate to arbitration, they are called Khawarij. The word Kharaju, from which Khariji is derived, means "to withdraw" and Khawarij were, therefore, seceders who believed in active dissent or rebellion against a state of affairs they considered to be gravely impious.
Khwarij- The Dogs of Hellfire:
Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (Rahimahullah),the great Muslim scholar defines briefly: “Al-Khawarij” is plural of “Kharija [one who went out]” and it means “A Faction” They are a group of (blameworthy) innovators, who are named as such because of their leaving the religion and rebelling “against the best of Muslims” [Fath ul Bari, Sharh Sahih ul Bukhari, Volume # 12, Page # 283]
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “There will be division and sectarianism in my nation and a people (the Kharijites) will come with beautiful words and evil deeds. They will recite the Quran but it will not pass beyond their throats. They will leave the religion as an arrow leaves its target and they will not return to it as the arrow does not return to its bow. They are the worst of the creation. Blessed are those who fight them and are killed by them. They call to the Book of Allah but they have nothing to do with it. Whoever fights them is better to Allah than them.” [ Abī Dāwūd, Sahih 4765]
“The rebels (khawarij) are the dogs of the Hellfire.” [Ibn Majah 173];
Ibn Kathir said, “If the Khawarij ever gained power, they would corrupt the entire earth, Iraq, and Syria. They would not leave alone a boy or a girl or a man or a woman, for in their view the people have become so corrupt that they cannot be reformed except by mass killing.” [al-Bidāyah wal-Nihāyah 10/584]
Salient features/ Signs of the Khawarij:
Some of the characteristics of the earlier Khawarij, including those who lived at the time of the Companions of the Prophet (pbuh), as well as those at the time of the Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates and all other ages, including the present has been briefly summed up by Shaykh ‘Abd Al-Majid Al-‘Arifi, translated by Shaheera Vakani. This comprehensive and useful information is reproduced here. The preset Khwarij are known as “Al Qaedah”, “ISIS” or the “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” or “Daesh,” or Boko-Haram, Pakistani Taliban and the likes of them who have manipulated and twisted the teachings of Islam, the proper Islamic concept of Jihad, and the noble act of ‘Promoting Virtue and Preventing Vice’ (Al-Amr bi Al-Ma‘ruf wa Al-Nahi ‘an Al-Munkar) to carry out their own twisted purposes and evil desires. There is a doubt common among some of the Muslims who deny that these organizations and sects are the latter-day Khawarij, and their refusal to identify them as such. This is an effort to help the unprejudiced, fair-minded Muslims to judge with reason and knowledge. Consider the following concerning our latter-day Khawarij:
1. Mostly young in age:
The Messenger of Allah said: At the end of time (meaning: the last days of the world), there will appear some people among you who are young in age, immature and senseless; they will use the best of the speech of the people in their claims, and they will leave Islam just as the arrow pierces the body of the game and then abandons it. Their faith will not go past their throats, so wherever you see them, kill them; for their killing will be recompensed and rewarded on the Day of Judgement. (Bukhari). This characteristic is apparent in these organizations. Similarly, the people who implicate themselves in situations of fitan, turmoil, and confusion are also mostly young.
This is evident in the members of these organizations—in what they preach and how they defend themselves. In fact, those who have left these groups after having been members confess that their judgment had been clouded (when they were part of these organizations).
3. Quote the Quran and Hadith to their perverted purposes:
As is pointed out in the aforementioned hadith, they use the Quran, the Sunnah, and scholarly statements to support their claims, despite the fact that all of these evidences and proofs are against them and not for them. They recite the Quran, thinking that it is for them (i.e. supporting their claims) while it is against them. (Muslim)
4. Do not have a deep understanding of Islam:
The Prophet said: They recite the Quran but it does not go past their throats, meaning that the teachings of the Quran do not enter their hearts, nor do they understand or comprehend them. This characteristic is very discernible in the Khawarij, as they possess no true knowledge nor do they strive to attain it. They are not known to accompany the scholars or attend their study circles; instead, their main occupation is being updated on the latest news, rumors, and snippets of information that has no benefit in terms of Islamic learning.
They consider the most intelligent amongst them to be the one who has spent the most time in acquiring the most recent events and views. As for the Quran, the Sunnah and the teachings of scholars, they have no interest in them nor do they invest time in pursuing them.
5. Show unnecessary excessiveness in their acts of worship:
The Messenger of Allah said: Your prayer does not compare to their prayer, nor does your fasting compare to their fasting, nor does your recitation compare to their recitation (Muslim). And in another narration, he said: You will slight your prayers in comparison to theirs (Bukhari and Muslim).This characteristic is not very apparent in the Khawarij of our times, but it was manifested in the earlier Khawarij. For many of the Khawarij of today are morally corrupt and foulmouthed, and have no concern for acts of worship.
As for the ones from amongst them who are concerned with worship, they are extremely arrogant and boastful about it. Their outward religiosity, however, prompts some Muslims to defend them and to try to find excuses for their arrogant behavior. But this defense is untenable, for soundness of intention is not the only condition for an act of devotion to be accepted; there is another important requirement: following the normative Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) and that of his Companions.
Imam Al-Ajurri (d. 360 h.) said: “If you see a group of people lead an armed rebellion against the ruler—just or otherwise—in which they spill Muslims’ blood indiscriminately and without batting an eye, you should not doubt for a second that they are wretched deviants—no matter how beautifully they recite the Quran, or how meticulous they are in their Salah, or how persistent in their fasting, or how attractive their discourse is. (Kitab Al Shari’ah, 1/345)”
6. Kill the believers and spare the idolaters:
The Messenger of Allah said: They kill the Muslims and spare the idolaters. If I live to see them I will kill them like the killing of (the people of ‘Aad). (Bukhari and Muslim). This has occurred in our present time in that there has not been a single catastrophe or calamity that befell the Muslims except that these people used it to divide Muslims, to mass-murder them, and to charge them with apostasy. They say: “We will kill the apostates before killing the idolaters and disbelievers,” while it has never been documented that the Khawarij have fought the disbelievers! They fight primarily against Muslims, a fact attested by the situation in Syria and other Muslim countries.
7. Go to the extreme in religion until they abandon it:
The Prophet said about the ideological progenitor of the Khawarij, Dhul Khuwaisirah: Leave him, for there will issue from his loins (progeny) a people who will go to the extreme in religion until they abandon it altogether, just as the arrow pierces the body of the game and then abandons it. (Ahmad). The Khawarij’s extremism and harshness in religion is well-known. A group of scholars who hold that the Khawarij are disbelievers and apostates adduce the Prophet’s statement: “until they abandon it” as proof for their position. Think about the deviation and misguidedness of this sect whose depravity gets to a point where the scholars differ as to whether they are Muslims or not! (The scholars are agreed that the Khawarij do not belong in the category of Ahl Al Sunnah wal Jama’ah: “orthodox Muslims.”) Despite this, the Khawarij believe that they are upon the truth and treading the path of the true religion and Shari’ah.
“Say (O Muhammad): “Shall We tell you the greatest losers in respect of (their) deeds? Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds!” [Al-Kahf, 18:103-104]
It is reported that a man from the Khawarij asked ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib about this verse and the latter replied: “It is alluding to you, O people of Harura’.” (Harura’ was a town which the Khawarij occupied and made the seat of their government.) (Tafsir Al-Tabari)
8. They insult and defame Muslim leaders, declaring them misguided:
In this, they tread in the footsteps of their ideological ancestor, Dhu Al-Khuwaisirah, who said to the Messenger of Allah as he was distributing the war booty: O Muhammad, be just [in your distribution of the booty], for this is not the distribution of a man who seeks Allah’s pleasure. (Ibn Majah) For this reason, the scholars have considered Dhul Khuwaysarah to be the progenitor of the Khawarij.
Similarly, the Khawarij agitated the people against caliphs ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib in their respective reigns so much so that the people saw them in a negative light and repelled against them. Imam Tabari mentioned in his Tarikh the message which the arch agitator against ‘Uthman—‘Abdullah ibn Sabâ’—gave to his followers on how to deal with ‘Uthman.
He said: “March forth fervently in pursuit of this goal, and begin with defaming the leaders while feigning the ‘Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice’. Attract the people and make them incline towards you while calling them to this matter (of disunity and rebellion against the leaders.)”
Al-Tabari said: “So he (Ibn Sabâ’) sent his missionaries, and kept close contact with those who shared his evil motives and designs in other Muslim lands. They advocated their opinions secretly while feigning to uphold the Islamic principle of ‘Promoting Virtue and Preventing Vice’. They wrote letters to the various Muslim regions and localities, defaming the leaders. They kept each other updated on the events of their countries, so that they encompassed the entire region with their connections and circulation of news. They did all of this while hiding their true intentions.” (Tabari’s Tarikh Al-Umam wa Al-Muluk, 4/340)
This has continued to be the method of the Khawarij ever since their movement reared its hideous head up until the present time, as they are active participants in gossipy gatherings on the Internet. Such has become their main concern and occupation.
9. Appear in times of disunity and strife (Bukhari and Muslim):
They did not appear in Syria, Iraq, and other war-torn countries except when there was disunity and discord in these lands. Similarly, the earlier Khawarij movement intensified after the murder of caliph ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, an incident that stirred up disruption and disagreement among the Prophet’s Companions.
10. Do not hold Scholars in high esteem:
They consider themselves more knowledgeable than ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ibn ‘Abbas, and the rest of the Companions. Consequently, they have caused the Companions a great deal of trouble and harm. Moreover, they treated the scholars from the generation after the Companions in a similar manner. For example, they criticized Al-Hasan Al-Basri when he opposed the followers of Ibn Al-Ash’ath as they attempted to rebel against the tyrannical ruler, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi. When the Khawarij perceived Al-Hasan Al-Basri’s disagreement with their misguidance and falsehood, they slandered him by saying: “Should we obey this infidel?” Furthermore, they accused him of being a loyal subject to the oppressive ruler. In the end, their fate was that some of them were killed while some suffered increased dictatorship at the hands of Al-Hajjaj. (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 7/163).
The present day Khawarij have a similar attitude towards contemporary scholars, whom they dismiss as: “scholars subservient to kings,” “the scholars of menses and postpartum bleeding,” “they do not possess knowledge of reality,” and “they are indifferent.” All of this malicious gossip and defamation from the Khawarij was because of the fact that those scholars opposed their religious opinions and attitudes.
11. Quote verses fighting idolaters to justify fight against believers:
Ibn ‘Umar said: “They (the Khawarij) took verses about the disbelievers and used them against the believers.” (Bukhari)
12. Accuse opponents of apostasy, consider legal (halal) to kill them:
Al-Safirini said concerning the opinions of Nafi’ ibn ‘Abdullah Al-Azraq (the ideological founder of Al Azâriqa sect of the Khawarij), “He accuses those who disagree with him of apostasy and considers it legal (halal) to kill them.” (Lawami’ Al-Anwar, 1/86). This is manifest in the way that they murdered the noble Companion ‘Abdullah ibn Khabbab, while he was travelling with his wife. They confronted him and blocked his path, challenging him, they asked, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am ‘Abdullah ibn Khabbab, a Companion of the Messenger of Allah.” When they knew his identity, they asked him to narrate something to them from the Messenger of Allah and he did. They proceeded to question him about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and he mentioned them with a great deal of praise and admiration. Next, they asked: “And what do you say about ‘Uthman in the beginning of his Caliphate and at the end of it?” He replied: “Uthman was a truthful man in the beginning of his Caliphate and at the end of it.” Finally, they asked him about ‘Ali before and after his Caliphate, to which Khabbab replied: “Indeed, he is more knowledgeable than you, stronger in his religion and wiser.” That enraged them and they said: “You follow nothing but whims and are merely loyal to men because of their names (their fame), not because of their deeds. We swear by Allah that we will kill you in a manner that we have never killed anyone before.” They struck at him and murdered him until his blood flowed into the water (of a river nearby). Then they turned to his pregnant wife who got frightened and pleaded, “Truly, I am a woman, will you not fear Allah (and spare me)?” Nevertheless, they killed her and tore out her womb. (Tabari’s Tareekh 5/82).
13. Advocate violent opposition of oppressive Muslim leaders:
Despite the abundance of ahadith recommending patient endurance with tyrannical leaders [if carrying arms against them will be counterproductive. And this of course does not mean neglecting the duty of al–amr bi al-ma‘ruf wa al-nahi ‘an al-munkar towards these rulers in a wise and peaceful manner.]The Khawarij advocate the obligation of assassinating such leaders and all those who are pleased with their rule or support and help them. This is why they legalize and justify the killing of police and security guards, whom they consider to be the soldiers and helpers of oppressive leaders.
14. Disagree amongst themselves, form sects, killing each other:
Their sects include the Azâriqa, the Ibadhiyah, Al-Najdât and several others. That’s how the Khawarij are seen today: killing and accusing each other of apostasy.
15. Abuse Islamic principle of Promoting Virtue and Preventing Vice:
They misuse and abuse the Islamic principle of (Al-Amr bi Al-Ma‘ruf wa Al-Nahi ‘an Al-Munkar) and manipulate the proofs in the Quran and Sunnah to justify recourse to violence.
Imam Al-Ajurri said: “They emerged from various regions and united under the banner of ‘Promoting Virtue and Preventing Vice’ until they reached Madinah and assassinated Caliph ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.”
Don’t be Misled by Today’s Khawarij:
The preceding summarized compilation of the characteristics of the Khawarij that fully apply to the present day Khawarij. With this in mind, the intelligent Muslim will not have any doubt now, that the aforementioned groups and individuals properly identify as the Khawarij of today, even if they claim to be Salafi, “the People of Tawhîd” or proclaim themselves defenders of the Sunnah. It is a lie, however much they may deny it. The Muslim Ummah has not received any help or support from the Khawarij; rather, they have massacred the believers and helped the disbelievers, atheists, and hypocrites. This is the truth about them.
It must be well understood that that the act of trying to convince, advise and deter the Khawarij is a noble act which reaps huge rewards and is a form of Jihad (struggling) for the sake of Allah, in addition to fighting them under legitimate authority. Moreover, debating them and spreading awareness about the falsehood of their ideology is also encouraged. Narrations about the virtues of opposing them are plentiful in the Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), in the sayings of his Companions, and in the statements of those who followed their guidance. The Messenger of Allah said: “So wherever you see them, kill them, for their killing will be recompensed and rewarded on the day of Judgment.” He also said:” If the army that is to encounter them (the Khawarij) were to know of the rewards that they have been promised, they would never turn back from this deed.” (Muslim). Those who have been killed by the Khawarij receive glad tidings, as the Messenger of Allah said: “The best people killed are those who are killed by them.” He also said: “Glad tidings for the one who kills them or is killed by them. (Graded Sahîh, narrated by Imam Ahmad). Therefore, those who excuse the behavior of the Khawarij, deny those who oppose them, justify their stance, or consider them to be legitimate Mujahidin, they should fear Allah.
Imam Al-Ajurri said: “Contemporary and classical scholars are unanimous that the Khawarij are an evil lot who disobey Allah and His Messenger, notwithstanding their prayers, fasting, and striving in worship. The Khawarij make a pretense of ‘Promoting Virtue and Preventing Vice’ but that will not benefit them either because they twist the meanings of the Quran to suit their whims and desires. Allah, His Messenger, the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, the Companions, and all those who follow their guidance have warned us about the Khawarij. They are evil, filthy, repugnant, and whosoever follows their perverted ways or advocates their ideology, whether in the past or the present, is one of them. Their [ideological] ancestor was a man [Dhu Al-Khuwaisirah] who said to the Messenger of Allah as he was distributing war booty: “O Muhammed, be just (in your distribution) I do not see you acting justly.” The Messenger of Allah replied: “Woe to you! Who is just if I am not just?” Enraged by Dhu Al-Khuwaisirah’s insolence, ‘Umar said: “O Messenger of Allah, allow me to kill him!” But the Messenger of Allah did not permit ‘Omar to do so and said: You will slight your prayers and fasting in comparison to their prayers and fasting; and they will go to the extreme in the religion until they abandon it altogether. In some ahadith, the Messenger of Allah enjoined killing the Khawarij. During the reign of Caliph ‘Uthman, the Khawarij came forth from various regions, united under the guise of ‘Promoting Virtue and Preventing Vice’, until they stormed Madinah and assassinated that Rightly-guided Caliph. The Companions who were present in Madinah at the time tried to repel them, but they were overwhelmed by their enemy.
The Khawarij then rebelled against ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib branding him illegitimate caliph. Their mantra was: “There is no rule save that of Allah.” When ‘Ali heard this statement he remarked: “A truthful statement by which they intended falsehood.” ‘Hazrat Ali (R.A), with the help of the majority of the Companions, turned all his efforts and resources to fighting the Khawarij and warding off their evil. Thus, ‘Ali’s sword will remain a sword of truth in the fight against the Khawarij until the Day of Judgement.” (Kitab Al-Shari’ah 1/325).
The basic doctrine of the Khawarij:
Keeping in view the fifteen signs of Khawarij mentioned above, the doctrine evolved by present Khwarij to justify killing of another Muslim is: “A person or a group who committed a grave error or sin and did not sincerely repent ceased to be Muslim”. According to them mere profession of the faith "there is no god but God; Muhammad is the prophet of God” did not make a person a Muslim unless this faith was accompanied by righteous deeds. In other words, good works were an integral part of faith and not extraneous to it.
The second principle that flowed from their aggressive idealism was militancy, or Jihad, which the Khawarij considered to be among the cardinal principles, or pillars, of Islam. Contrary to the orthodox view, they interpreted the Qur’anic command about "enjoining good and forbidding evil"(Qur’an;3:104) to mean the vindication of truth through the sword.
The placing of these two principles together made the Khawarij highly inflammable fanatics, intolerant of almost any established political authority. They incessantly resorted to rebellion and as a result were virtually wiped out during the first two centuries of Islam. Although till recently Chasidism has been considered essentially a story of the past, which left permanent influence on Islam, because of reaction against it. It forced the religious leadership of the community to formulate a bulwark against religious intolerance and fanaticism. Positively, it has influenced the reform movements that have sprung up in Islam from time to time and that have treated spiritual and moral calmness and status quo with a quasi-Khawarij zeal and militancy.
The question arises; Are there more groups like these? Will there be more like them? Gnostic sects (groups that claim esoteric knowledge) and eschatological hysteria (anxieties about the end of the world) are as old as religion itself and have occurred in many places and times. Presently the religious fundamentalist terrorists, are not only found among the followers of Islam but Jews who interpret biblical texts and follow new leaders, and various Christian groups and even secular "militias" in the United States that arm themselves and keep others at a distance. Most of them can be studied and classified in the context of old religions newly interpreted, but most of them are also similar to the doomsday cults in their view that they are a specially selected people. They believe that they alone hear the voice of God accurately, that they alone act upon what they hear, and that they and their leader foresee doom for others. The result of their actions can be lethal. They, however, are less divorced from inherited and host religions than are the fully identified doomsday cults.
The Red Masjid Islamabad clerics frequently misused the term ‘Jihad’ and ‘Shahadat’ (martyrdom) to indoctrinate the innocent young students, who had joined their seminary to learn Islam and memorize holy Qur’an. Like Doomsday Cult, they prepared their students to lay down their lives to get instant rewards through martyrdom (Shahadat). The concept of Jihad and martyrdom (Shahadat) interpreted to be employed against their own fellow Muslims ! a video was found in circulation, a group of female students announcing allegiance to Abubakr Baghdadi, the leader of Daesh and self proclaimed caliph.
Hence parallels may be drawn between ‘Cultism’ and the phenomenon of Talibanization due to the intolerance and militancy (including suicide bombing) being employed by them against fellow Muslims to enforce their vision of Islam. In the words of (Eqbal Ahmad: “We are chasing an Islamic order stripped of its humanism, aesthetics, intellectual quests and spiritual devotions…. concerned with power not with the soul, with the mobilization of people for political purposes rather than with sharing and alleviating their sufferings and aspirations.”
However in order to curtail the Talibanization and cult phenomena, there is need to undertake short term and long term measures to satisfy the needs of security, justice, social equality and economic condition of masses and level of education in religious institutions so that the unity and development of Muslims is not affected.
Over 17000 religious seminaries (Madaris), with around 2 million students, should not be left at the mercy of some semi literate mentally derailed preachers to teach hatred and militancy in the name of great religion of Islam, though many among them are highly learned, mature and balanced teachers rendering great service to Islam. In a recent report, in Punjab 299 such Madaris have been identified, which are involved in terrorism in some form. Their leadership needs to be closely scrutinized, the long awaited ‘Madaris Reforms’ need to implemented without further delay and with sincerity, co-opting the real scholars (Ulema), for the sole objective of own benefit, not to please the foreign masters . Any delay will result in dire consequences. While military operation Rad-e-Fisad is underway, the terrorists must be confronted in doctrinal sphere to deprive them from the tacit support from among the masses through an elaborate grand media campaign.
Doctrine of Takfir:
The doctrine of Takfir; is being used in the modern era especially by Daesh and Taliban, in sanctioning violence against leaders and simple Muslims who are deemed insufficiently religious. Takfir is a pronouncement to declare any (non practicing Muslim), to be an unbeliever (Takfir), apostate, (Murtad) hence liable to be killed. It has become a central ideology of militant groups such as those in Egypt, iraq and across the world including so called ‘Taliban’, now also in Afghanistan and adjoining tribal areas of Pakistan. According to the ‘Oxford Dictionary of Islam’, doctrine of Takfir is claimed to be derived from the ideas of Sayyid Qutab, Maududi, Ibn Tymiyyah and Ibn Kathir. Mainstream Muslims and Islamic groups reject the pseudo concept of ‘Takfir’ as a doctrinal deviation [bid’at], heresy. Leaders such as Hassan al-Hudaybi (died,1977) and Yousf al–Qaradawi reject ‘Takfir’ as un-Islamic and marked by bigotry and zealotry. Such narrow mindedness has exacerbated the evil of sectarianism and the resulting intolerance among the masses has led to a dangerous trend towards sectarian militancy. The Saudi scholars, who were accused of sympathetic, also condemned and strongly rejected the ‘Takfir’ doctrine.
Takfir in Conflict with Islamic Principles:
Design of Creation:
Man as an animal has a humble origin. But he has been given the gift of certain faculties of receiving instruction (typified by Hearing) and of intellectual and spiritual insight (typified by Sight) according to Qur’an; “Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts) of Hearing and Sight”(Qura’n;76:2). His life has therefore a meaning: with a certain amount of free-will, he is to be vicegerent on earth (Qur’an;2:30). But he must be trained and tried, and that is the whole problem of human life. “Verily We have created Man into toil and struggle.”(Qura’n;90:4). Allah says: “I have not created jinns [invisible beings] and mankind except to worship (serve) Me. I require no sustenance from them, nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Surely it is Allah Who is the giver of all sustenance, the Lord of Power, the Invincible.” (Qur’an;51:56-58). To understand why human beings need to worship Allah, one must first understand what is meant by words ‘yabudun’ (worship, service) it is derived from word ‘abud’’ means ‘slave’ who surrenders to the command of his master. The English term ‘worship’ comes from the Old English “weorthscipe” meaning ‘honor.’ Consequently, worship is defined as ‘the performance of devotional acts in honor of a deity: According to this meaning, man is instructed to show gratitude to Allah by glorifying Him, In the Qur’an, Allah says; “Glorify the praises of your Lord”(Qur’an;2:185). Worshipping (serving) Allah does not mean that people spend their entire lives in constant seclusion and absolute meditation. The true service (worship) to Allah is to live in this world according to His commands, and not to run away from it. Worship (service) is to obey what He desires and refrain from what He forbids by his free moral will, a test or trial.
Thus the purpose of creation of humanity is to test the people during limited life span on earth and finally reward in hereafter. “Every soul shall have a taste of death: and We test you by evil and by good by way of trial: to Us must ye return.”(Qura’n;21:35). If He wanted everyone would have obeyed Him, like angels: “Have not yet the believers been satisfied that if God wanted, He would have certainly guided the whole of mankind?”(Qur’an;13:31). “if it had been His will He could indeed have guided you all."(Qur’an;6:149).” But God want to test the man, by granting him limited free moral will to choose between right and wrong. Apart from intellect, He also provided guidance thorough prophets and scriptures. Those who obey Him by choice, due to the ‘limited free moral will’ granted by God and live according to His guidance, will be rewarded and those who disobey, will be punished in hereafter: “Say "The Truth is from your Lord": let him who will believe and let him who will reject (it)- for the wrongdoers We have prepared a Fire..(Qur’an;18:29).“The One Who created death and life, so that He may put you to test, to find out which of you is best in deeds: He is the All-Mighty, the All-Forgiving.”(Qur’an;67:2). “Notwithstanding that no human being can ever attain to faith otherwise than by God’s leave, and (that) it is He who lays the loathsome evil (of disbelief) upon those who will not use their reason?”(Qur’an;10:100). “We shall surely test your steadfastness with fear and famine, with loss of property, life and produce. Give good news to those who endure with patience; who, when afflicted with calamity, say: “We belong to Allah and to Him we shall return.” Such are the people on whom there are blessings and Mercy from Allah; and they are the ones that are rightly guided.”(Qur’an;2:155-157). “And if thy Lord willed, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Wouldst thou (Muhammad) compel men until they are believers?”(Qura’n;10:99). “And what is there to keep back men from believing now that Guidance has come to them nor from praying for forgiveness from their Lord but that (they ask that) the ways of the ancients be repeated with them or the Wrath be brought to them face to face?”(Qura’n;18:55).
Man Created Weak, Not to be Over Burdened:
It is possible that some believer (Muslim) neglects a duty (prescribe through Qur’an or Sunnah). If we treat this neglect or omission on the same basis as we treat addition, we are demanding that every Muslim should be perfect, a heavy burden. Allah says: “God wishes to lighten your burdens because humans have been created weak by nature” (Qur’an;4:28). “God does not burden any human being with more than he is well able to bear”(Qur’an;2:286, 6:152, 7:42 & 23:62). This further explains that God has classified the Muslims in to three broad categories i.e. the sinners, moderates and ideal Muslims: “We have given the Book as an inheritance to those of Our servants (Muslims) whom We have chosen, among them there are some who wrong their own souls, some follow a middle course and some, by Allah's leave, excel in good deeds; which is the supreme virtue.”(Qur’an;35:32). Further elaborated: “who are true to their trust and covenants, and who are diligent about their prayers (Salah). These are the heirs who will inherit paradise; and live therein forever.”(Qur’an;9:11). “We wrote this in The Zaboor (Psalms;37:29) after the reminder (Torah given to Moses): that as for the earth, My righteous servants shall inherit it.”(Qur’an;21:105).“So lose not heart nor fall into despair: for ye must gain mastery if ye are true in faith.”(Qur’an;3:139).
It is observed in a Muslim society that the majority of Muslims fall in to the 1st category, followed by 2nd and few in the last category of ideal pious Muslims. While we should always try to improve ourselves, perfection cannot be expected from anyone. Allah describes the believers with whom He is pleased as those who "avoid the cardinal of sins and gross indecencies, and are guilty of only small offence, surely for them your Lord will have abundant forgiveness…”(Qur’an53:32). In other words, the good believers who earn the pleasure of Allah commit minor sins. Proceeding further it may said that even a person who commits a grave sin may still earn the pleasure of Allah, if he works hard, perform good deeds and seeks His forgiveness. Allah says: “He has chosen you (Muslims) and has not laid upon you any hardship in the observance of your faith - the faith of your father Abraham”(Qur’an;22:78). “Thus have We made of you (Muslims) a community justly balanced (middle way)”(Qur’an;2:143)
No Coercion in Matters of Faith:
Duress in the matter of faith is incompatible with Islam. Even the Prophet (peace be upon him) was clearly told: “If then they (non believers) turn away We have not sent thee as a guard over them. Thy duty (O’ messenger of God) is but to convey (the Message).”(Qur’an;42:48, similarly at 22:49, 3:20, 4:80, 7:79, 93, 24:54 and many other places). Qur’an further elaborates: “Let there be no compulsion in religion: truth stands out Clear from error: Whoever rejects evil and believes In Allah hath grasped the Most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. and Allah hears and knows all things.”(Qur’an;2:256);“to you be your religion, and to me mine”. (Qur’an;109:6). Compulsion is irreconcilable with religion; because, firstly; religion depends upon faith and will, and these would be meaningless if induced by force. Secondly, Truth and Error have been so clearly shown up by the mercy of God that there should be no doubt in the minds of persons of goodwill as to the fundamentals of faith;. Thirdly, God's protection is continuous and His Plan is always to lead us from the depths of darkness into the clearest light. An insight to the concept of sin, crime, repentance, mercy and punishment will help to remove some of the misconceptions.
The concept of sin has been present in many cultures throughout history, where it was usually equated with an individual's failure to live up to external standards of conduct or with his violation of taboos, laws, or moral codes. In ancient Greek thought, sin was looked upon as, in essence, a failure on the part of a person to achieve his true self-expression and to preserve his due relation to the rest of the universe; it was attributed mainly to ignorance. Some ancient societies also had concepts of corporate, or collective, sin affecting all human beings and dating from a mythical "fall of man" out of a state of primitive and blissful innocence.
In Christianity, ‘Original sin’; is the belief that the sin committed by Adam & Eve in disobeying the command of Lord is carried by every human, Islam does not agree to it, Adam (peace be upon him) committed the first sin, he repented and was forgiven by God (Qur’an;2:37). Allah say: “Every soul will reap the fruits of its own deeds; no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another.” (Qur’an;6:164). Bible also emphasizes the individual responsibility: “The soul that sins shall die. The son shall not suffer for the iniquity of the father, nor the father suffer for the iniquity of the son; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself. But if a wicked man turns away from all his sins which he has committed and keeps all my statutes and does what is lawful and right, he shall surely live; he shall not die.”(Ezekiel;18:20-21).
Types of Sins:
Actual sin is subdivided, on the basis of its gravity, into ‘Mortal’ and ‘Venial’ (pardonable). This distinction is often difficult to apply but can hardly be avoided. A ‘Mortal Sin’ is a deliberate turning away from God; it is a sin in a grave matter that is committed in full knowledge and with the full consent of the sinner's will, and until it is repented it cuts the sinner off from God's sanctifying grace. A ‘Venial Sin’ usually involves a less important matter and is committed with less self-awareness of wrongdoing. While a ‘Venial Sin’ weakens the sinner's closeness to God, it is not a deliberate turning from him and so does not wholly block the inflow of sanctifying grace.
Actual sin is also subdivided into ‘Formal’ and ‘Material’. Formal Sin is both wrong in itself and known by the sinner to be wrong; it therefore involves him in personal guilt. The ‘Material Sin’ consists of an act that is wrong in itself (because contrary to God's law and human moral nature) but which the sinner does not know to be wrong and for which he is therefore not personally culpable.
Bible on Sin:
In the Old Testament, sin is directly linked to the monotheistic beliefs of the Hebrews. Sinful acts are viewed as a defiance of God's commandments, and sin itself is regarded as an attitude of defiance or hatred of God. The New Testament accepts the Judaic concept of sin but regards humanity's state of collective and individual sinfulness as a condition that Jesus came into the world to heal. There is emphasis on repentance (Luke;15:7,10,21-24, 11:4, Mathew:6:12). Jesus Christ preached observance of Law of Moses, he said: “Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. Whoever then relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches men so shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but he who does them and teaches them shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.”(Mathew;5:17-20). Much later, Paul in his letter to the Romans, said: “But now we are discharged from the law, dead to that which held us captive, so that we serve not under the old written code but in the new life of the Spirit.” (Romans;7:6). Paul nailed the Law and the Commandments to the cross: “having canceled the bond which stood against us with its legal demands; this he set aside, nailing it to the cross.”(Colossians;2:14).
Paul contrasts ‘justification by faith’ to ‘justification by works’, the position of Jews. The point in question was on which basis man should establish himself in the just relationship to God in order to achieve salvation. In Paul’s mind the position of the Jews was this: fulfillment of the works prescribed the law, and its observance, made a man just, and thus did justified man present himself to God. The connection between justice and salvation is one of merit. Paul holds that this tenet is in conflict, the man is possessed by sins (Romans7:7-25). Paul claimed that salvation can only be obtained through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ: “that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you shall be saved; for with the heart man believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation.”(Roman;10:9-10), “If Christ be not risen from the dead, then our preaching is vain, and your faith is also vain.”(1Corinthians;15:14). The Christians have no religious law (Shari’a) they follow the Roman Law to run the affairs of state and society. According to the doctrine of Redemption, Christ's blood or life, which he is believed to have surrendered for them, is the "ransom" by which the deliverance of his people from the servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is believed to be secured.
The Christian doctrine of ‘Justification by Faith’, is believed to be the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense; and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law (Romans;5:1-10). The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited to the believer is faith [believe in Jesus Christ as Lord].
The Christians believe to be judged by the law of liberty (James;2:12) that is, the Gospel law of love, which is not a law of external constraint, but of internal, free, instinctive inclination. The law of liberty, through God's mercy, is believed to free Christians from the curse of the law. The Christians who do not in turn practice the law of love to their neighbor, that law of grace condemns them still more heavily than the old law.
The doctrine of salvation by grace is criticized; that it does away with the necessity of good works, and lowers the sense of their importance (Romans;6:1-23). If men are not saved by works, then works are not necessary. If the most pious man is saved in the same way as the very chief of sinners, then good works are of no use. And more than this, if the grace of God is most clearly displayed in the salvation of the vilest of men, then the worse men are the better. The gospel of salvation by grace shows that good works are necessary. It is true, unchangeably true, that without holiness no man shall see the Lord. " Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate (homosexual, gay, lesbian), nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards" shall inherit the kingdom of God” (1Corinthians;6:9-10). “For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that you should abstain from fornication:” (1Thessalonians;4:3).The Good works of the most sincere believers are all imperfect, yet like their persons they are accepted through Jesus Christ (Colossians;3:17), and so are rewarded; they have no merit intrinsically, but are rewarded wholly of grace. However in an other epistle Paul contradicts:
“And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work”.(Romans;11:6).
This saying demolishes the doctrine of all kinds and manner of works, by which the justifiers of themselves teach that works are either wholly or partly the cause of our justification.
There is something so absolutely inconsistent between the being justified by grace, and the being justified by works, that, if you suppose either, you of necessity exclude the other. For what is given to works is the payment of a debt; whereas grace implies an unmerited favour. So that the same benefit cannot, in the very nature of things, be derived from both.
The Gentiles (people without any law), will be judged by the law of conscience: “For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: Which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;(Romans;2:14-15 also). The Jews and Muslims adhere to the Law of Moses and Qur’an respectively having many commonalties.
The three Abrahamic faiths see sin as a deliberate violation of the will of God and as being attributable to human pride, self-centeredness, and disobedience. While insisting more strongly than most religions upon the gravity of sin, both in its essence and in its consequences, they emphatically rejected the Manichaean doctrine that either the created world as a whole or the material part of it is inherently evil. It is held that evil acts are the result of the misuse of their free will by created beings and tendency of their nature to get seduced by evil impulses (Satan) to turn the soul in rebellion against God. On the Day of Judgment, the sinners will be punished for evil deeds, hell will be their abode. The sinner believers (of God, His messengers and scriptures) will ultimately be taken out and rehabilitated in paradise, the non believers will however suffer in hell.
In Christianity, the ‘Deadly sin’ (cardinal sin) is any of the sins, usually numbering seven, dating back to the early history of Christian monasticism. A sin was classified as deadly not merely because it was a serious offense morally but because "it gives rise to others, especially in the manner of a final cause" or motivation (St. Thomas Aquinas). The traditional catalog of the seven deadly sins is: (1) Vainglory, or pride; (2) Covetousness (excessively and culpably desirous of the possessions of another); (3) Lust, understood as inordinate or illicit sexual desire; (4) Envy; (5) Gluttony, which usually included drunkenness; (6) Anger; and (7) Sloth (Aversion to work or exertion; laziness; indolence). The deadly sins were a popular theme in the morality plays and art of the European Middle Ages.
‘Sin’ is an offense against religious or moral law, while according to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary; ‘Crime’ is an act or the commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by a public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the ‘crime’ is the intentional commission of an act usually deemed socially harmful or dangerous and specifically defined, prohibited, and punishable under criminal law. Crimes in the common-law tradition were originally defined primarily by judicial decision. Most common-law crimes are now codified. According to a generally accepted principle, nullum crimen sine lege, there can be no crime without a law. A crime generally consists of both conduct (the actus reus) and a concurrent state of mind (the mens rea). Criminal acts include arson, assault and battery (beating or pounding), burglary, bribery, child abuse, extortion, counterfeiting, embezzlement, forgery, fraud, hijacking, homicide, kidnapping, perjury, piracy, rape, sedition, smuggling, treason, theft, and usury (excessive interest) etc. To commencement of crime has to be established through fair judicial process and evidence to punish the accused. The accused is let off if the crime is not proved.
Islam on Sin:
The breach of laws and norms laid down by Din Al-Islam, is considered as sin. The sin may be of omission or commission; though any violation of religious law or ethical norm is a sin, but one is held accountable only for those committed intentionally. “If anyone does evil or wrongs his own soul and then seeks Allah's forgiveness, he will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful. Whoever commits a sin, he commits it against his own soul. Allah is knowledgeable, Wise.”(Qur’an;4:110-111);“Surely he who will come to his Lord as a sinner shall be consigned to Hell - wherein he shall neither die nor live. While he who will come to Him as a believer and has done good deeds shall have the highest ranks”(Qur’an;20:74-75). Most of the crimes are also sin because they have adverse affects on morality and spirituality, but not all sins constitute crime. The biggest sin is to associate partners with Allah, but there is no prescribe punishment for this most heinous sin to make it crime, though such a person will suffer for ever in hell fire in hereafter. The Jews of Arabia considered Ezra to be son of God, while Christians consider Jesus Christ to be son of God, but they continued to live as subjects of Islamic State established under Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), as long as they abide by the agreements. The Jews and Christians enjoy a special status as ‘People of the Book’ in Islamic states despite their transgression. Muslims are allowed to marry Jewish or Christians women, eat their permissible food, establish normal relations with the non believers who do not fight the Muslims due to their faith (Qur’an;60:7-9). Hence during last fourteen centuries, non Muslims had been living in Islamic states as peaceful citizens. If Islam is so considerate and tolerant about the non believers, then what about the believers who happen to be sinners?
The authorities punish the criminals after trial, but the sinners may get away unpunished: “They might be able to hide their crimes from people, but they cannot hide from Allah. He is with them even when they plot by night in words that He cannot approve. Allah encompasses all their actions.”(Qur’an;4:108). Islam accords very high priority in strictly meeting the requirement of clear evidence for execution of the fair justice, even at the cost of crime remaining unpunished: “And for those who launch a charge against their spouses, and have (in support) no evidence but their own,- their solitary evidence (can be received) if They bear witness four times (with an oath) by Allah that They are solemnly telling the truth;. And the fifth (oath) (Should be) that they solemnly invoke the curse of Allah on themselves if they tell a lie. But it would avert the punishment from the wife, if she bears witness four times (with an oath) by Allah, that (her husband) is telling a lie; and the fifth (oath) should be that she solemnly invokes the wrath of Allah on herself if (her accuser) is telling the Truth.”(Qur’an;24:6-9). Thus, the husband's accusation is to be regarded as disproved if the wife solemnly sets her word against his, Inasmuch as this procedure, which is called li'an ("oath of condemnation"), leaves the question of guilt legally undecided, both parties are absolved of all the legal consequences otherwise attending upon adultery , an unproven accusation of adultery - the only consequence being a mandatory divorce. However the liar has to bear consequences of the sin. Such people will be punished by God in hereafter if do not rescind through sincere repentance here. Similarly for example, murder of an innocent human is a crime as well as sin. The murdered may getaway form punishment in the court of law due to lack of evidence, but he can not escape the divine justice in hereafter. In an other case: “But if anyone commits a crime and charges an innocent person with it, he indeed shall bear the guilt of slander and a flagrant sin.”(Qur’an;4:112)
Punishment and forgiveness of sins, is the sole prerogative of All Mighty Allah, any human trying to indulge in such activity is guilty of grave transgression, highly detested by Allah: “Do they not know that it is God alone who can accept the repentance of His servants and is the [true] recipient of whatever is offered for His sake - and that God alone is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace? (Qur’an;9:104). At times He partially reduces the punishment of a crime upon repentance: “Those who accuse a chaste woman of fornication and do not produce four witnesses to support their allegation, shall be flogged with eighty lashes and their testimony shall not be accepted ever after, for they are the ones who are wicked transgressors - except those who repent thereafter and mend their conduct; for Allah is surely Forgiving, Merciful”(Qur’an;24:4-5).
Islam recognizes major and minor sins. Holding someone equal to God, or to share in His divinity is considered as the most serious unpardonable sin. Strict monotheism is the cardinal point of Islam. Islam views the whole issue of disobedience and sin in a different way. Its approach is to hold the prospect of forgiveness and reward:
“Yea, to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: so that He rewards those who do evil, according to their deeds, and He rewards those who do good, with what is best. Those who avoid great sins and shameful deeds, only (falling into) small faults,- Verily Thy Lord is ample In Forgiveness. He knows you well when He brings you out of the earth, and when ye are hidden In your mothers' wombs. Therefore justify not yourselves: He knows best who it is that guards against evil.”(Qur’an;53:31-32).
A good work is rewarded ten times as against a sin (Qur’an;6:160). According to Islam, a sin is an action which constitute the violation of Islamic teachings. The action may not be more than the utterance of certain words, as in the case of backbiting or perjury. Therefore, any action or word, which involves disobedience to Allah and His messenger (peace be upon him), is a sin. The Islamic law (Shari’a) deals with the sins and crimes, some punishable here and some in hereafter if not sincerely repented upon.
Categories of Sins:
Sinful actions are of two types: the first carry mandatory punishment, which is specified either in the Qur’an, or in the Sunnah; while for others punishment, (in this world) is not specified, for example if some who can afford financially and physically but does not perform Hajj (one of five pillars of Islam), or avoids Saoum (fasting) without prescribed reasons, he is committing a cardinal sin for which is entitled for divine punishment. However such person is not charged legally as long as he believe in them and does not renounce them publicly. The first type, the cardinal sins, include four certain offences, but many scholars include two or three more, so as to make the total seven. The four are homicide, adultery, accusing chaste women of adultery and highway robbery / theft. The other three are, waging war against the Muslim states, apostasy and use of intoxicants. No other offence carries a specified punishment (hadd), except for murder which carries the capital punishment, but the immediate relatives of the victim may, if they choose, pardon the offender. According to some scholars, the cardinal sins include murder, adultery, theft, using intoxicants, gambling, perjury, slandering, withholding Zakah, neglecting prayers, etc. Some modern scholars consider the major sins being the one for which strict exemplary punishments (Hadd) have been specified in Qur’an and Sunnah. It will not be overstatement that, the universally agreed bad, evil acts, crimes also fall in to the category of sin, like, cheating, killing, adultery, backbiting etc.
The minor sins are readily forgiven when we pray Allah for forgiveness. Cardinal sins (kaba’ir) are also forgivable with the exception of the most serious of them, namely, associating partners with Allah (Qur’an;4:116). The repentance has to be sincere, so as not to repeat them again, followed by charity and performance of virtuous acts. The scholars agree that when a non believer renounce his previous faith, repents and accepts Islam, his previous sins are forgiven and he/she makes a new start: “O Prophet, tell the unbelievers that if they desist from unbelief their past shall be forgiven; but if they persist in sin, let them reflect upon the fate of their forefathers.”(Qur’an;8:30); “Those who accept the true faith and do good deeds shall be forgiven and provided honorable sustenance; but those who strive against Our revelations shall be the inmates of flaming fire.”(Qur’an;22:50). The people of book [Jews and Christians] get double reward on acceptance of Islam [Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith;1:97A, 4:255].
Repentance and Mercy:
Anyone who, at the end of any particular day in his life, examines what he/she may have said or done is bound to come to the conclusion that he has committed several sins. If the feeling of guilt lingers with us for a long while, and increases day after day, then life will acquire a very gloomy aspect. We will feel that we have no hope of salvation. Our sins can only increase and they will inevitably do away with our good deeds. But this is not how Islam views the whole issue of disobedience and sin. Its outlook constantly embrace the prospect of forgiveness and reward due to His Mercy, Allah says:
“Your Lord has decreed mercy upon Himself. If anyone among you commits evil because of ignorance and thereafter repents and mends his ways; you will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.”(Qur’an;6:54).
“Surely Allah will never forgive the one who commits the sin of ascribing partners to Him and may forgive anyone else if He so pleases. Who so ascribes partners unto Allah has wandered far astray.”(Qur’an;4:116).
“Say: "O my Servants (believers) who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful. Turn ye to your Lord (in repentance) and bow to His (Will) before the Penalty comes on you:” (Qur’an;39:53-54); “If anyone does evil or wrongs his own soul and then seeks Allah's forgiveness, he will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.”(Qur’an;4:110). “However, the one who has repented in this life, and believed, and done good deeds may hope to be among those who will achieve salvation.”(Qur’an;28:67).
Even in the case of offences that carry mandatory punishment, Islam prefers that the offender follows the alternative course, which is to repent and make amends. The Prophet [peace be upon him] says: “If you do any of these offences and are duly punished for it in this life, the punishment atones for it. If you keep it between you and God, then it is up to God to either forgive or punish you on the Day of Resurrection.” This means that repentance is the key to what one should do after committing any sin. Repentance means acknowledgement of one’s error, genuine regret for having committed it and a firm resolve not to do it again. If one truly repents of one’s sins and prays to God for forgiveness, then God accepts one’s repentance He has promised that and God’s promises always come true.
It may be added here that if the sinful actions involves something due to other people, he should restore to them what is rightfully theirs. Thus a person who commits theft should combine his repentance with returning what he has stolen. A person who slanders another in front of a group of people should contact those people and put the record straight to them, speaking well of the person whom he had slandered.
Intercession of Prophet (pbuh) for Believers:
There is also a hadith related by Abu Hurairah and recorded by Ahmad and Muslim in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said; "Every prophet has a special supplication that is answered. Every prophet hastened to make his supplication, but I concealed mine and will use it for my nation on the Day of Resurrection. It will be granted--Allah willing--to whoever dies without associating any partners with Allah." Al-Bukhari also recorded that Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The person who will be the happiest due to my intercession is the one who says, 'There is no god but Allah' sincerely from his heart." [Extract, Fiqah-us-Sunnah, volume.1, Number.77b].
Virtues Remove Evils:
Any good action or kind word, which we may do or say, will be credited to us. It will earn us a reward and the cumulative effect of our reward will erase at least a commensurate number of our sins. Moreover, a good is given a reward, which is equivalent to at least ten times its value. A sin or an act of disobedience is recorded at its simple value. Therefore, a small act of kindness erases a sin, which is ten times more serious. Allah says: “Indeed virtues remove evils..”(Qur’an;11:114 ); “Repel evil with good” (Qur’an;23:96, 13:22, 41:34).
It is again re-emphasized that Allah has left the door always open for repentance of one's sins. For a cardinal sin to be forgiven, a resolve is needed not to indulge in it again. He has also committed Himself to turn with forgiveness to anyone who genuinely turns to Him in repentance. Therefore, when we wrong ourselves by committing a sin, we should turn to Allah and declare our repentance and pray for forgiveness. If we are sincere and genuine, then Allah will undoubtedly forgive us. The mark of genuine repentance is the resolve not to repeat the offense. Even if one yields to temptation again and does the same offense another time, his first repentance is accepted as well as his second, if on both occasions he is honest and sincere and has really regretted committing the offense: “He knows what is in the heavens and on earth: and He knows what you conceal and what you reveal: yes Allah knows well the (secrets) of (all) hearts.”(Qur’an;64:4).
Islam recognizes that human beings, being as they are, may yield to temptation and commit sins. As long as they are not so hardened in sin that they do not bother about the offense at all, forgiveness is possible. Indeed, it is likely, provided that the offense is followed by genuine regret and a clear intention to refrain from doing it again. That concept allows Muslims to have the reassurance that forgiveness is always possible. Islam does not like its followers to go about with the specter of Divine punishment always hanging over their heads. Indeed, it prefers that they always have the prospect of being forgiven. There is another element, which ensures forgiveness. Allah describes His servants with certain qualities including refraining from cardinal sins. He threatens those who indulge in them with punishment, except one who turns to Allah in repentance, believes and does something good. Allah will change the evil deeds of such people into good ones. Allah is indeed much forgiving, merciful. Allah says: "avoid the cardinal of sins and gross indecencies, and are guilty of only small offence, surely for them your Lord will have abundant forgiveness…”(Qur’an;53:32). That Qur’anic verse shows us the way to forgiveness. It is easily achieved if we follow our bad deeds with good ones. The doors of repentance remain open until a person is in the final throes of death. Pharaoh just before drowning, cried out: "I believe that there is no god but Him in Whom the Children of Israel believe” but it was not accepted and his body made as a sign for the successive generations (Qur’an;10:90-92).
Sins, Crimes and Shari’a:
Most of the sins, especially related with the dealings with other human beings fall in to the category of crimes punishable though courts established under Shari’a (Islamic law), those which remain undiscovered will be punished hereafter. In Islamic society, the term law has a wider significance than it does in the modern secular West, because Islamic law includes both legal and moral imperatives. For the same reason, not all-Islamic laws can be stated as formal legal rules or enforced by the courts. Much of it like sin of backbiting (Qur’an;49:12) not greeting (Qur’an;24:27) etc depends on conscience alone.
Qur’an in verses 24:30-31, while explaining the required behavior of Muslims in mixed traffic and gatherings of males and females, ordains the believing men and women to lower their gaze, guard their modesty, and to (alway) turn to God in repentance for bliss. Violation of any one of the commandments mentioned these verses constitute a sin (punisheable in hereafter), however since punishemnet has not been prescribed here so in legal terms; a Msulim man staring at women can not be punsihed in the court of law, though he is commiing a sin. Since such violations are possible due to "man has been created weak" (Qur’an;4:28), the implication of the general call at the end of verse 24:31, to repentance is because no one is ever free of faults and temptations so much so that even the Prophet (pbuh) used to say, "Verily, I turn unto Him in repentance a hundred times every day" (Ibn Hanbal, Bukhari and Bayhaqi, all of them on the authority of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar).
While the state can not implement every aspect of Islam through force of law, in the religious matters, the scholars think that state has the responsibility of making arrangements to: 1) establish Salah (regular prayers) and 2) system of Zakah (obligatory charity), 3) enjoining right and forbidding evil, taking inference form Qur’an: “These are the people who, if We establish them (in power, authority) in the land, will establish Salah and pay Zakah, enjoin right and forbid evil; the final decision of all affairs is in the hands of Allah.”(Qur’an;22:41), “…but if they repent and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.”(Qur’an;9:5). Some scholars think that implementation in all other matters, should be left to the individuals through persuasion to enjoining good and forbidding evil.
The implementation methodology of injunctions could be deduced from guidance provided by Allah: “Make due allowance for man’s nature, and enjoin the doing of what is right (amr bil a’rif); and leave alone all those who choose to remain ignorant.”(Qur’an;7:199). While explaining this verse Muhammad Asad writes: “According to Zamakhshari, khudh-al-‘awf means: ‘Accept what comes easily to thee (or ‘what is willingly accorded to thee’) of doings and the nature of men, and make things easy (for them), without causing them undue hardship (khulf); and do not demand of them efforts that may be too difficult for them.’ This interpretation – which has been adopted many other classical commentators as well–is based on the identical explanation of the phrase khudh al ‘awf by ‘Abd Allah ibn az- Zubayr and his brother ‘Urwah (Bukhari), as well as by A’ishah and, in the next generation, by Hihsam ibn ‘Urwah and Mujahid (Reference; Tibri, Baghawai and Ibn Kathir). Thus, in accordance with the Qur’anic statements that “man has been created weak”(Qur’an;4:28) and that “God does not burden any human being with more than he is well able to bear”(Qur’an;2:286, 6:152, 7:42 & 23:62), the believer is admonished to make due allowance for human nature and not to be too harsh with those who err. [May be due to this aspect forgiveness from sin and exemption from Hadd was granted by Allah according to a Hadith: Narrated by AbuUmamah (Sahih Muslim Hadith, 1292)]. This admonition is the more remarkable as it follows immediately upon a discourse on the most unforgivable of all sins- the ascribing of divine powers or qualities to any one or anything but God.” It may also be kept in view that the man is also under trial :“Every soul shall have a taste of death: and We test you by evil and by good by way of trial: to Us must ye return.”(Qura’n;21:35).
Use of force as being done by non state groups like Daesh, TTP (Taliban), forcing the men to keep beard, women to cover face, not to attend schools and colleges etc are the matters where there are different opinions of jurists, while the extremists consider them as deviations. It is the responsibility of the well established government in a Muslim society which is competent to execute punishments after fair trial according to Shari’a while taking care of all the requirements of justice. Similarly to the performing Hajj and many other rituals and religious obligations are left to the individual Muslims for which they is answerable to Allah. The Bible also emphasizes similar aspects: “For he that will love life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile: Let him eschew evil, and do good; let him seek peace, and ensue it. For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil. And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good?” (1 Peter; 3:10-13)
Shari’a & Western Law:
In classical form, the Shari’a differs from Western systems of law (based on Roman Law) in two principal respects. In the first place the scope of the Shari’a is much wider, since it regulates man's relationship not only with his neighbors and with the state, which is the limit of most other legal systems, but also with his Allah and his own conscience. Ritual practices, (ibadat) such as the daily prayers, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage, are an integral part of Shari’a law and usually occupy the first chapters in the legal manuals. The Shari’a is also concerned as much with ethical standards as with legal rules, indicating not only what man is entitled or bound to do in law, but also what he (obligatory) ought, in conscience, to do (halal), something that is lawful and permitted in Islam, or refrain from doing (haram) not permissible. Accordingly, certain acts are classified as praiseworthy (mandub), which means that their performance brings divine favour and their omission divine disfavour. There is an other category not halal or haram but some thing doubtful, classified a Undesirable (makruh), it is divided into Makruh Tahrimi "that which is nearly unlawful without it being actually so," and Makruh Tanzihi "that which approaches the lawful or undesirable yet is closer to the lawful." For example it is undesirable (makruh) for a person to buy back what he has given in charity (sadaqah, or zakat), or "to wish for one's death, or pray to Allah for it, due to poverty, distress, illness, or the like. However in neither case is there any legal sanction of punishment or reward, nullity or validity
Killing: The Heinous Crime and Cardinal Sin:
The killing of innocent people is a major crime & sin in all the civilized societies and religions. According to the Bible: “He who kills a man shall be put to death.”(Leviticus; 24:17). Allah says in Qur’an:
“You shall not kill anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for just cause under the law. If anyone is killed unjustly, We have granted the right of retribution to his heir, but let him not carry his vengeance too far in killing the culprit through taking the law in his own hands, as he is supported by the law.”(Qur’an;17:33).
Offenses against the person, from homicide to assault, are punishable by retaliation (qisas), the offender being subject to precisely the same treatment as his victim. But this type of offense is regarded as a civil injury rather than a crime in the technical sense, since it is not the state but only the victim or his family who have the right to prosecute and to opt for compensation or blood money (diyah) in place of retaliation.
The punishment fixed for major crimes (also sins) is hadd Outside the hadd crimes, both the determination of offenses and the punishment therefore lies with the discretion of the executive or the courts. While the execution of punishments is strict, highest standards of fairness, justice, evidence and clemency are applied in establishing the (hadd), but once the crimes is established the punishment is carried out without any compassion as evident from Ahadith narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah: A woman from the tribe of Makhzum committed theft. She was brought to Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) and she sought intercession from Umm Salamah, the wife of Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him). Thereupon Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: By Allah, even if she were Fatimah [daughter of the Prophet (pbuh) ], I would have her hand cut off. And thus her hand was cut off.(Sahih Muslim Hadith.786).
The Kernel of Takfiri Doctrine:
Proper understanding of ‘apostasy’, the root of Takfiri doctrine will highlight the heinous blunder of killing innocent Muslims [men women and even children] in mosques and public places. The Arabic word ‘Irtadad’ is translated as ‘apostasy’. According to Merriam Webster dictionary ‘Apostasy’ means; renunciation of a religious faith; abandonment of a previous loyalty. Hence ‘apostate’ (murtad) is a person who has defected his (Islamic) belief. [may be called as betrayer, deserter, recreant, renegade, tergiversator, traitor or turncoat]. Apostasy has always been considered as a capital offence in all the religions and political systems of the world, because it is considered as a high treason against the established norms of society. The Bible prescribes death by stoning for apostasy: “You shall stone him to death with stones, because he sought to draw you away from the LORD your God..”(Deutrony;13:10). The pagan Romans brutally killed the early Christians on same ground. Subsequently this practice was repeated by the Christian Church against opposing Christians, who were killed and burnt alive. Death penalty for apostasy remained in force in England for long time. It was abolished due to social and cultural developments.
Islam abhors forced conversions, the non Muslim citizens in a Muslim state have the right to freely choose to convert to Islam or keep practicing their faith. But once a person converts to Islam, he is obliged to practice his faith to be a good Muslim. In early Islam, the pagans of Makkah, and Jews of Medina used to indulge in this practice (apostasy) to gain intelligence and to demoralize the fragile expanding Muslim community of Median. Hence apostasy is considered as a cardinal sin in Islam. Whether it is punishable by Islamic law is a debatable matter among Muslim scholars. Some believe that the apostate should be punished after trial because they consider this crime as a betrayal, high treason against the community, while others opine that if someone changes his faith and does not challenge the Islamic society, it is a matter between him and Allah, Who will punish him in hereafter. However, both opinions agree that it is a major worst form of sin punishable by Allah. Non-Muslims enjoy complete freedom to preach and practice their faith among themselves.
The apostate are cursed and condemned in Qur’an, however the path of repentance remains open, but those who do not repent and die as apostate, they will be punished in hereafter. Allah says:
“How shall Allah guide those who reject Faith after they accepted it and bore witness that the Messenger was true and that Clear Signs had come unto them? But Allah guides not a people unjust. Of such the reward is that on them (rests) the curse of Allah, of His angels, and of all mankind; In that will They dwell; nor will their penalty be lightened, nor respite be (Their lot). Except for those that repent (Even) after that, and make amends; for Verily Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. But those who reject Faith after They accepted it, and then go on adding to their defiance of Faith, never will their repentance be accepted; for They are those who have (of set purpose) gone astray.”(Qur’an;3:86-90).
“As for those who accept the faith then renounce it, who again embrace it and again deny it and go on increasing in unbelief; Allah will neither forgive them nor guide them to the Right Way.”(Qur’an;4:137).
“and if any of you turn back from their Faith [yartadd] and die In Unbelief, their works will bear no fruit In This life and In the Hereafter; They will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.”(Qur’an;2:217).
“Those who turn back as apostates [irtaddo] after Guidance was clearly shown to them the Evil One has instigated them and buoyed them up with false hopes.”(Qur’an;47:25).
“O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from His Faith[yartadd], soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love As They will love him..”(Qur’an;5:54)
According to another Hadith, killing of Muslim is only permissible under three conditions: Narrated by Abdullah; “Allah's Apostle said, "The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas [retribution] for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims”[Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith;9:17].
Declaration of Apostate or Non Muslims is through Courts of Law:
It may be kept in view that the authority to declare any Muslim as apostate or award of punishment is the job of Islamic courts established by the legitimate state authority. Various stateless groups if allowed to take the law in their hands will result in anarchy (fasad-fil-ardh) through killing each other by declaring opponents as apostate or nonbelievers. Waging war against Allah, His messenger and to strive for mischief through the land (fasad-fil-ardh) is a crime punishable with death, crucifixion, cutting of hand and feet from opposite sides or exile, as clearly mentioned in Qur’an;5:33.
Not Offering Prayer (Salah) & Apostasy:
To suggest that a person who does not pray for three days be sentenced to death and executed straight-away is absurd, contrary to the teachings of Islam and is based upon ignorance. Imam Abu Hanifah maintains that a person who fails to offer Salah, is not to be killed, but must be given a minor punishment and confined until he prays. They say the hadith that calls such people unbelievers refer to those who deny the prayers (salah), (disbelieve) [Fiqah-As-Sunnah;1:77b]. They say that any other interpretation is contradicted by other texts.
Some scholars argue that a person who does not pray is a non-believer. If he was a Muslim and then reached that stage, then some people argue, he became an apostate and apostasy may incur capital punishment. But this line of thinking is not much different from the one which leads to the following conclusion:
‘What is white is milk; eggs are white, so egg is milk!’
Scholars have distinguished between two types of disbelief: The first is concerned only with what a person believes in or denies while the second one, relates to action or lack of it. All scholars unanimously agree that if a person denies something, which is essentially known as an integral part of the Islamic faith, he is a disbeliever [i.e. five pillars of faith]. If we are to apply this principle to obligatory prayers [salah], we say that if a person claims to be a Muslim and denies that prayers are part of Islam, or says that it is part of it but not necessarily in the number or the manner which the Prophet (peace be upon him) taught, then he is a disbeliever. If his denial has come shortly after he had been a Muslim, then he is an apostate. In a Muslim state, an apostate is given a fair hearing before Muslim judges who may order that scholars should come and explain to him the Islamic faith and argue with him about his beliefs. If he insists on maintaining his apostasy, he is given three days to recant. If he does not, then he may incur the capital punishment.
It may be pointed out that this is not a simple case, but a very complicated one. To start with, the person concerned should have publicized his beliefs, which are contrary to Islam in a way, which is likely to undermine Islamic society. If he keeps his beliefs to himself, nobody will question him about them [no one will know it]. When he is questioned about them, every opportunity is given to make him realize his mistake. Scholars of the highest caliber are brought to argue with him. In the end, if he is so stubborn, he is sentenced, but given three days to recant. He can easily escape punishment by publicly saying that he has renounced his erroneous beliefs.
It may be kept in view that a Muslim government is not at all interested in discovering who is following the right faith and who has funny ideas. It does not follow people into their homes to discover what they actually believe in. Islam granted the basic human right of individual privacy, 1400 ago once such freedom and personal liberty was unthinkable in any society: “O believers! Avoid immoderate suspicion (guesswork), for in some cases suspicion is a sin. Do not spy on one another, nor backbite one another (to say something about another behind ones back that if one hears it, dislikes it). Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely you would abhor it. Fear Allah; for Allah is the Accepter of repentance, Merciful.” (Qur’an;49:12). The implementation of these injunctions by Caliph Omar is a good example of moderation in implementation of rule of law. On night Omar, the second Caliph, during his routine night watch hear some singing sound form a house. He climbed up the wall and found a man with wine and a woman. He asked him that how he could hide such immoral violation of commands of Allah? The man replied that the Caliph has already violated three command of Allah; first by spying on a believer (Qur’an;49:12), secondly, by not entering a house through door (Qur’an;2:189), and thirdly by entering the house without permission of the owner (Qur’an;24:27-28). The Caliph had no answer and had to leave quietly however he took a promise from him not to indulge in such immoral activates in future. Not even the most civilized governments can grant such a freedom to their citizens even in this present era of civil liberties and human rights. Hence, a person may entertain the most preposterous thoughts and beliefs, without having any fear that anyone will question him about his ideas. The principle is clearly stated: "No compulsion is admissible in matters of faith."(Qur'an;2:256). The Prophet said, "I have not been ordered to look into the hearts of people, nor to rip open their bellies." (Abridged from al-Bukhari and Muslim).
If a person who has much deviant ideas starts to publicize them and calls on others to share his beliefs, he is actually starting a rebellion against the very fabric of Islamic society and its basic concepts. His action is likely to result in division and conflict. When this happens, Islam moves to nip such a detrimental offshoot when it is still in the bud. Its method is to give the person concerned every chance to stop his seditious action. To escape punishment, that person need not do more than to state that he withdraws his earlier statements, even if he still believes in them in his heart. What Islam achieves by this is to stop the act of sedition, which could cause public disorder. If the person still maintains his ideas but keeps them to himself, no one is going to bother about him.
The other type of disbelief is that which relates to action, or the lack of it. Certain actions of disobedience to Allah have been described by the Prophet (peace be upon him) as actions of disbelief. A person who is guilty of any of these is questioned about his actions and the Islamic position is explained to him. If he has committed an act of disobedience for which a particular punishment is prescribed by Allah and this is proven either by the testimony of the required number of witnesses or by free confession, then the punishment is carried out. No authority can stop it. In the case of a person who does not pray, there is no prescribed punishment, though he is committing a cardinal sin.
The term ‘Taliban’ [plural of Talib, (the seeker of religious knowledge, particularly the Islamic knowledge, a student) is generally used for the students of Madrisah (religious seminary). The term ‘Taliban’ was started to be used for the militant group of students and religious leaders who established the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in 1994-96 in order to end the lengthy civil war following the withdrawal of the Soviets from the region in 1989. Led by Mullah Omar, they promoted Islam as a moral, sable, and orderly alternative to civil war, ethnic divisions, and warring tribal chiefs. They followed strict, literal and conservative interpretations of Islam and rely on strict punishments and executions. Influenced primarily by Wahabi (Deobandi) teachers and Pashtun tribal traditions. The regime was denounced by international human rights organizations for absolute segregation of women and violation of human rights. They were initially welcomed by the people of Afghanistan for restoring peace, however could not continue their rule in Afghanistan after 9/11 due to US intervention. However they continue to resist US and NATO forces in Afghanistan, to reestablish sovereignty. The situation in Pakistan, a sovereign Islamic State is totally different to Afghanistan. Some misguided local elements supported by foreign powers are being used by the enemies of Pakistan and Islam, to achieve their strategic objectives. While Muslims are being oppressed by occupation forces in Palestine, Kashmir, Chechnya, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere, the Taliban are indiscriminately killing innocent Muslims, not even sparing women and children and worshippers at mosques through suicide bombers. Such heinous acts are being done on the name of Islam, to serve the cause of Allah. Calling these criminal and misguided, semi literate people as Taliban is a misnomer. Their Takfir doctrine is in direct conflict with the basic teachings of Islam, The are creating fasad-fil-ardh (mischief on land). This phenomena of ‘Fitnah’ is not new in the Muslim history.
“Those that make war against God and His Messenger and spread disorder (Fisad) in the land shall be put to death or crucified or have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides, or be banished from the country. They shall be disgraced in this world, and then severely punished in the Hereaft"(Quran;5:33)
Fitnah (trial, or test), which refer to heretical uprisings, especially the first major internal struggle within the Muslim community (656-661 C.E), which resulted in both civil war and religious schism. During the reign of the third caliph, 'Uthman, certain rebellious groups accused the Caliph of nepotism and misrule, and the resulting discontent led to his assassination. The rebels then recognized the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law, 'Ali, as ruler but later deserted him and fought against him, accusing him of having committed a grave sin in submitting his claim to the caliphate to arbitration, they are called Khawarij. The word Kharaju, from which Khariji is derived, means "to withdraw" and Khawarij, believed in active dissent or rebellion against a state of affairs they considered to be gravely impious. The basic doctrine of the Khawarij was that: “A person or a group who committed a grave error or sin and did not sincerely repent ceased to be Muslim”. According to them mere profession of the faith "there is no god but God; Muhammad is the prophet of God” did not make a person a Muslim unless this faith was accompanied by righteous deeds. In other words, good works were an integral part of faith and not extraneous to it. The second principle that flowed from their aggressive idealism was militancy, or Jihad, which the Khawarij considered to be among the cardinal principles, or pillars, of Islam. Contrary to the orthodox view, they interpreted the Qur’anic command about "enjoining good and forbidding evil"(Qur’an;3:104) to mean the vindication of truth through the sword. The placing of these two principles together made the Khawarij highly inflammable fanatics, intolerant of almost any established political authority. They incessantly resorted to rebellion and as a result were virtually wiped out during the first two centuries of Islam. Although till recently Chasidism has been considered essentially a story of the past, which left permanent influence on Islam, because of reaction against it. It forced the religious leadership of the community to formulate a bulwark against religious intolerance and fanaticism.
Khwarij; Daesh Taliban & Violation of Qur’an:
The Takfiri doctrine is not based upon any direct clear commandment or ayah of Qur’an, it is derivative, based upon analogy (taweel), which can have more than one opinions. “The fact is that most of them follow nothing but mere conjecture and conjecture is in no way a substitute for the truth. Surely Allah is well aware of all that they do.”(Qur’an;10:36). However through their violent terrorist acts, Taliban are violating the clear verses (Ayahs) and Hadiths. No Muslim worth the name will ever dare to even think of rejecting or violating the unambiguous commandments of Allah, clearly mentioned in Qur’an and Hadith, some are:
Disregarding the Ayahs annuls good deeds:
Allah says: “Those whose all efforts in this worldly life had gone astray from the Right Way, but all along they were under the delusion that they were doing good deeds; they are the ones who are disregarding the Ayaat (revelations, verses) of their Lord and the fact that they will meet Him for accountability of their deeds in the Hereafter, so their deeds will become null and will not carry any weight on the Day of Judgment.”(Qur’an;18:104-105)
Killing a believer, major sin:
“Whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell to live therein forever. He shall incur the wrath of Allah, Who will lay His curse on him and prepare for him a woeful punishment.”(Qur’an;4:93). How far it is justifiable to kill some Muslim who believes in all the fundamentals of Islam but lack in practice. Does Qur’an or any authentic Hadith directly mention to kill such a Muslim? Is there any example where the Prophet (peace be upon him) executed such a Muslim? If the answer is not in affirmative, then how stateless groups like Taliban can justify killing such Muslims on the basis of their skeptical analogy, rejected by majority scholars including Imam Abu Hanifah.
Killing of innocent human not permitted: Allah says: “..whoever kills a person, except as a punishment for murder or mischief in the land, it will be written in his book of deeds as if he had killed all the human beings and whoever will save a life shall be regarded as if he gave life to all the human beings..”(Qur’an;5:32); Allah says: “You shall not kill anyone whom God has forbidden, except for just cause under the law. If anyone is killed unjustly, We have granted the right of retribution to his heir, but let him not carry his vengeance too far in killing the culprit through taking the law in his own hands, as he is supported by the law.”(Qur’an;17:33)
Mischief on land (Fisad) Rejected:
Allah says: “.. and do not seek mischief in the land, for Allah does not love the mischief makers.”(Al-Qasas;28:77) Allah says: “When it is said to them: “Do not make mischief on earth,” they say: “We make peace. Be aware! They are the ones who make mischief but they do not realize it.”(Al-Baqara;2:11-12 similarly also at 2:60, 206, 3:63, 7:56).
“The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace In This world, and a heavy punishment is theirs In the Hereafter. Except for those who repent before they fall into your power: in that case know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.”(Qur’an;5:33-34).
The double crime of treason against the State combined with treason against Allah, and His Messenger as shown by overt crimes, four alternative punishments are mentioned, any one of which is to be applied according to the crime committed. In any case sincere repentance before it was too late was recognized as a ground for mercy.
Fighting permitted in defence within limits – No Transgression:
Allah says: “Fight in the cause of Allah with those who fight against you, but do not exceed the limits. Allah does not like transgressors.”(Qur’an;2:190).
Kindness to Non Combatants:
Allah says: “As for such of the unbelievers who do not fight against you on account of your faith, and neither drive you forth from your homelands, Allah does not forbid you to show them kindness and to behave toward them with full equity.”(Qur’an; 60:8).
Suicide is not permissible in Islam:
Allah says: “.. do not cast yourselves into destruction by your own hands…” (Al-Baqarah,2:195); Allah says: “..do not kill yourselves by adopting unlawful means….”(An-Nisa,4:29).Narrated Thabit bin Ad Dahhak: The Prophet said; “whoever commits suicide with something, will be punished with the same thing in the (Hell) fire”.(Sahih Al Bukhari Hadith Numbr:8.126). Narrated Jabir ibn Samurah: (The dead body) of a person who had killed himself with a broad-headed arrow was brought before the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him), but he did not offer prayers for him.(Sahih Muslim Hadith. Number.486).
Killing by burning not allowed:
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said: It is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them (enemies), kill them (in combat).(Sahih Al Bukhari, Hadith, Number.4.259). Narrated Ikrima : Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn Abbas, who said, “Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, ‘Don’t punish (anybody) with Allah’s Punishment.’...(Sahih Al Bukhari, Hadith, Number.4.260).
Safety of mosques, worshippers and places of worship of God:
Killing of Muslims or other worshipper is prohibited: “Hence, who could be more wicked than those who bar the mention of God's name from [any of] His houses of worship and strive for their ruin, [although] they have no right to enter them save in fear [of God]? For them, in this world, there is ignominy in store; and for them, in the life to come, awesome suffering.”(Qur’an;2:114). “Had not Allah repelled some people by the might of others, the monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which Allah's praise is daily celebrated, would have been utterly demolished.”(Qur’an;22:40)
Mutilation of the dead bodies is prohibited:
Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) prohibited to mutilate the dead bodies. (Sahih Muslim Hadith.804).
Prohibitions-of killing religious people, women, children, aged, sick people, animals and cutting trees in military expeditions:
Islam forbade killing of innocents. Narrated Abdullah: During some of the ghazawat of the Prophet a woman was found killed. Allah’s Apostle disapproved and forbade the killing of women and children. (Sahih Al Bukhari, Hadith, Number.4.257,258). Abu Bakr advised Yazid, the commander of Muslim Military Expeditions to Sham (Syria): “You will find a people who claim to have totally given themselves to Allah. Leave them to what they claim to have given themselves. You will find a people who have shaved the middle of their heads, strike what they have shaved with the sword. “I advise you ten things: Do not kill women or children or an aged, infirm person. Do not cut down fruit-bearing trees. Do not destroy an inhabited place. Do not slaughter sheep or camels except for food. Do not burn bees and do not scatter them. Do not steal from the booty, and do not be cowardly.” (Al Muwata Hadith, Number;21.10).
Freedom of Faith-no compulsion:
The freedom of choice of faith was not enjoyed by the people as it is in present era of freedom and liberty. The rulers did not allow their people to accept any different faith, so they had to be subdued to provide freedom of choice of faith to the people. Qur’an forbids forced conversions: “There shall be no coercion in matters of faith. Distinct has now become the right way from the (way of) error: hence, he who rejects the powers of evil and believes in God has indeed taken hold of support most unfailing, which shall never give way: for God is all-hearing, all-knowing.”(Qur’an;2:256). “An so (O Prophet) exhort them, thy task is only to exhort: Thou canst not compel them to (believe). As for those who turn their backs and disbelieve, Allah will punish them with the mighty punishment.”(Qur’an;88:21-24); “.. You (O Muhammad) are not there to compel them to believe. So admonish with this Qur'an every such person who fears My warning.”(Qur’an;45;50); “to you be your religion (Din), and to me mine.”(Qur’an;109:6). Notwithstanding that no human being can ever attain to faith otherwise than by God’s leave, and (that) it is He who lays the loathsome evil (of disbelief) upon those who will not use their reason? (Qur’an;10:100). Those who used their intellect understood the true faith and freely accepted Islam, while others continued to follow their faith and lived peacefully under the Muslim rule. The example of Spain, Greece, India and southern parts of Europe with majority non Muslim populations despite Muslim rule for centuries is an undeniable fact of history. No war was fought in Far East and East Africa; Indonesia is the largest Muslim country of the World, while East Africa has predominantly Muslim population. The worst persecution and forced expulsion of Muslims of Spain is a black spot in Christian history, for which an apology from Vatican is over due. Islam is the fastest growing religion in North America and Europe, due to strength of its rationale appeal. The real message of Islam is being presented pragmatically by educated Muslims as per guidance of Qur’an;16:125. The truthfulness of Islamic faith has inherent appeal to any logical human, prepared to analyze and compare their believes with Islam. The media especially, internet is of great help.
Role of Islamic Scholars (Ulema):
It is high time that Ulema should come forward in big way by dispelling the impression of their tacit sympathy for Takfiri Khwarij (Daesh and Taliban). The 299 Madirs of Punjab and those found to be supporting in other provinces be taken to task. The society is degenerating in spiritual and moral values at very fast pace, which can only be checked through preaching the true message of Islam by those Ulema who are selfless, men of action not mere words, possessing strong character, faith and knowledge. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is the role model to be emulated, he was known as Truthful (Sadiq) and Trustworthy (Ameen) much before he started to preach. The credibility of preacher is very important, which is lost at the outset for the Ulema venturing in to the dirty field of power politics. However it does not mean to leave the field wide open to the selfish, greedy, corrupt and scrupulous elements to exploit. Acting as a strong ‘pressure group’ they can do wonders through peaceful efforts without taking the law in their hands [Lawyers movement in restoration of judges is a case in point]. Ulema can support the good politicians, political parties and educate the masses to build pressure on the rulers for fairness and justice. They have to work hard to change the moral and spiritual outlook of the society so that people elect the good people. The history shows that most of the great scholars of Islam took no direct part in court politics or power struggles, despite their obvious antipathy toward the ruling dynasties of their time. This fact partly explains why Abu Hanifah steadfastly refused to be Chief Justice and also why he suffered severe persecution under both dynasties. The history is witness to the fact that persecution and atrocities of the worst kind were inflected upon opponents once clergy of a particular sect or group acquired prevailing influence upon the rulers. Once Ulema indulge in power politics they are doing it at the cost of their main role. The declining society in dire need of ‘men of knowledge’; will be deprived of it, further hastening the decline and degeneration.
This is the age of specialization, advancement in science & technology puts heavy demand upon Ulema to be also well versed with the modern knowledge and techniques. This will enable them to convince the young people (the future generation) about relevance and importance of Islam in their social, physical and spiritual lives. We must critically weigh the disadvantage against benefits to be achieved through politicizing the religious scholars, students (genuine taliban) and institutions. Damage to their ‘credibility’ is just one factor that has already caused immense damage to the cause of Islam, which the enemies of Islam could not achieve even during many centuries of colonization of Muslim lands. The fact is that the society is at the lowest ebb, every field requires reformation, and the Ulema have to abandon their original job to become economist, politician, journalist, lawyer or businessmen etc, as they can’t do justice to more than one specialty at a time. The books, internet, TV and other such means cannot be substitute to the genuine scholars with ‘creditability’ to teach students in seminaries (Madaris), write new books, articles on internet, newspapers, participate in TV talk shows, address congregations in Friday Prayers and so on. The scholars though knowledgeable but lacking credibility will be laughing stock at all these forums, as already being witness in some cases.
Ulema should solely concentrate in teaching and preaching din Al-Islam (Dawah). While calling the Muslim brothers deeply entangled in sins, we must not forget the universal principal of Dawah, Allah says: “Call thou (all mankind] unto thy Sustainer's path with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the most kindly manner-for, behold, thy Sustainer knows best as to who strays from His path, and best knows He as to who are the right-guided. Hence, if you have to respond to an attack (in argument], respond only to the extent of the attack levelled against you; but to bear yourselves with patience is indeed far better for (you, since God is with] those who are patient in adversity. (Qur’an;6:125-126); “--exhort one another to the truth and exhort one another to patience”(Qur’an;3:103).
The heretic doctrine of Takfeer; being used by the blood thirsty extremists world wide,(Daesh, Bokoharam, Taliban etc) has only worked in tarnishing the image of Islam. It is also the ideology of Pakistani Taliban, to justify indiscriminate killing of innocent Muslims including women and children even in mosques through suicide bombers. They have unilaterally declared all Muslims opposed to their brand of Islam as apostate (Murtad), to justify their killing. The doctrine of Takfir is an atrocious deviation, weakening the unity of Muslim Ummah, when it is the urgent need of the hour against onslaught of evil (taghoot). This doctrine has been condemned and rejected by the eminent scholars including the Saudi scholars. Parallels may be drawn between, Daesh (ISIS) TTP (Taliban) and Khwarij due to the intolerance and militancy being employed by them against fellow Muslims on the pretext of enforcing their vision of Islam. As a first step we should stop calling them ‘Taliban’, they should be called ‘Khwarij’ or ‘Khwarji of Pakistan’. People with such signs were called as ‘dogs of hell’ by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Creating mischief on the land of Muslims, only serves to please the enemies of Islam.
All the efforts of reconciliation in the light of Qur’an;49:10 remain futile so far due to stubbornness of terrorists. It is important that the intellectuals, as well as electronic and print media should take the lead to give moral and religious support to the soldiers, fighting the enemies of Islam and Pakistan while condemning the anti Islam, Takfiri Khwarij. While the military operation against rebellious people is undertaken, there is need that the government should urgently undertake concrete short term and long term measures to fulfill the purpose of creation of Pakistan as envisioned by the founding fathers. State should respect the religious feelings of majority, satisfy the needs of security, justice, social inequality and improve the economic conditions of people so that the unity of Pakistan and progress is not affected. Good governance is the need of hour.
The rebellion will ultimately be suppressed militarily but the war has to be won on ideological front, which is not possible without whole hearted support from the religious scholars (Ulema) and all segments of society. It is due to the importance of acquiring deeper knowledge of Din, with a view to educate the others; that (Ulema) have been even exempted to proceed with the expedition (of war) (Qur’an;9:122). There are many authentic Hadiths to highlight the importance of learning:” Striving after knowledge is a sacred duty (faridah) for every man and woman who has surrendered himself or herself to God (muslim wa-muslimah)" (Ibn Majah); or, "The superiority (fadl) of a learned man over a (mere) worshipper (i.e., one who merely prays, fasts, etc.) is like the superiority of the full moon over all the stars" (Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hanbal, Darimi). Consequently, the obligation of the believers to "devote themselves to acquiring a deeper knowledge of the Faith" (li-yatafaqqahu fi'd-din) and to impart its results to their fellow-believers.
It must not be forgotten that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) met with stiff resistance in Makkah when he pointed out the way to salvation, he was rewarded with abuse and persecution during initial 13 years, not only for himself but for the Truth which he was preaching. Anyone with weak heart might have been disgusted at what seemed the hopeless task of reclaiming the world from falsehood, superstition, selfishness, evil, and oppression. He was consoled by Allah: “[O Muhammad!] You probably will kill yourself in grief over them, if they do not believe in this Message (The Qur'an).That which is on earth We have made but as a glittering show for the earth in order that We may test them as to which of them are best in conduct”(Qur’an;18:6-7).“And so (O’ Prophet) exhort them; thy task is only to exhort them (non believers). Thou are not a taskmaster over them”(Qur’an;88:21-22 also emphasized at 10:108, 39:41, 42:48). The Prophet (pbuh) was sent to teach and direct people on the right way. He was not sent to force their will, or to punish them, except in so far as he may receive authority to do so. Punishment belongs to Allah alone, which is certain for non repentant and rebellious people in the Hereafter, when true values will be restored.
This is a universal advice which applies to everyone who, having become convinced of the truth of an ethical proposition, is dismayed at the apathy with which the people react, one must not get demoralized, as Alalh says:
“For, never would thy Sustainer destroy a community for wrong [beliefs alone] so long as its people behave righteously [towards one another]. And had thy Sustainer so willed, He could surely have made all mankind one single community: but [He willed it otherwise, and so] they continue to hold divergent views(Qur’an;11:117-118);
“---If Allah had so willed He would have made you a single people but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which you dispute.”(Qur’an;5:48).
“Now if God were to take men [immediately] to task for all the evil that they do [on earth], He would not leave a single living creature upon its face. However, He grants them respite until a term set [by Him]: but when the end of their term approaches, they can neither delay it by a single moment, nor can they hasten it.”(Qur’an; 16:62).
Islam was not spread with the power of sword, but with the power of superior pragmatic ideology based upon Truth and Justice. The empire building, rise, fall and destruction of civilizations is a historic process [see; Qur’an;35:43,10:47, 15:6, 7:34, 17:76-77, 18:55, 22:40, 2;251, 36:31, 38;3]. The basic virtues of progressive Islamic society, the peaceful coexistence, tolerance, patience, justice, social & economic harmony, acquisition of knowledge, Jihad-e-Kabira, respect of human life and values are almost extinct form our public life. Mere issuing fatwa’s against Pakistani Taliban is not enough. The common Muslims need to be educated about their doctrine and urge them to practice Din-Al-Islam to progress in this world and also save them from divine punishment in hereafter. During daily and Friday prayers, special supplication (du’a) for the victims of terror be offered.
The prominent signs of Khwarij (Dogs of Hell) as indicated in Hadiths, must be clearly understood and kept in view by believers to identify enemies of Muslims, their supporters and facilitators among and around:
1. Khwarij will kill Muslims and let idol worshipers go free.
2. Khwarij will be extremely oppressive, blood thirsty & violent.
3. They will be young in age.
4. They will be brain washed.
5. Khwarij will emerge from the east.
6. Khwarij shall quote Quran believing it is for them although in reality it is against them.
7. They will have thick unkempt beards.
8. Khwarij will be most evil of creation.
9. They will be made dogs of hell[In the hereafter].
10. They will take verses reveal about disbelievers and apply them to the believers.
11. Khwarij will declare one who commits a major sin is a disbeliever. They will declare lawful blood and wealth of someone who commits a major sin.
12. They will seize a particular area and make it center of terror activities.
13. Khwarij will continue to emerge until last of them appears with Anti-Christ (dajjal).
14. The one killed by them is best person killed.
15. Their faiths will not pass their throat.(qualities of true faith will not pass their throats)
16. Khwarij will be extremists in religious matters.
17. Believer will consider his own prayer and fasting insignificant in comparison to theirs[i.e Khawarij].
18. Khwarij will avoid negotiations with those who are righteous.
19. Those who fight against them will earn a great reward.
20. They[Khawarij] are the worst of those slain under the heavens.
21. Khwarij would secede [from the Ummah] when there would be dissension among the Muslims. Out of the two groups[of believers] who would be nearer the truth would kill them.
22. Khwarij will exit the Deen like an arrow does from the prey.
“We are chasing an Islamic order stripped of its humanism, aesthetics, intellectual quests and spiritual devotions…. concerned with power not with the soul, with the mobilization of people for political purposes rather than with sharing and alleviating their sufferings and aspirations.” [Eqbal Ahmad]
“Our Lord! Do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake.”(Qur’an;2:286).
Research by Aftab Khan
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